effort to prevent identified risks from causing a disaster
initiate measures to limit damage, disease, disability, & loss of life among members of a community
how does mitigation work?
level of disaster
response is determined by..
office of emergency management (OEM)
develops & coordinates emergencies within their defined area directs nurses' response to a countrywide disaster
manages blood service & bone marrow registry assists military with leaves provides disaster training for health care professionals takes part in disaster preparedness, response & recovery provides individual/family assistance to meet emergency needs (food, shelter) coordinates distribution of emergency relief supplies works with FEMA in federal disasters teaches first aid, water safety, CPR administers Project Share
American Red Cross duties
operates shelters provides feeding services provides individual & family assistance provides disaster health services handles inquiries from concerned family coordinates relief activities with other agencies, business, labor, & gov't seeks contributions
American Red Cross responsibilities in disaster (7)
provides emergency energy assistance to elderly & disabled in peak winter & summer months for Alabamians
safety & welfare of the community
the local government is responsible for the...
how many people are affected, injured, or dead? how much fresh water & food is available? what are the areas of risk or sanitation problems?
initial response assessment
triage victims prioritize care transfer those requiring immediate attention to medical facilities give tetanus shots, first aid, & medical attention to victims shelter nursing
what is the nurse's role in response?
process of separating casualties & allocating treatment based on the victim's potential for survival
"Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment" used in multicasualty or mass casualty incident to occur in <1 min uses people with minor injuries to assist person is tagged with colored triage tag victims moved to the treatment area
START triage system
1st check for respirations 2nd check for perfusion by capillary refill 3rd check mental status by asking simple ?s beginning with "who are you?"
1 minute assessment guideline
victims who have life-threatening injuries but have a high probability of survival once stabilized
who is given highest priority?
victims who have injuries with systemic complications that are not yet life-threatening but can wait up to 45-60 mins for tx
who is given second priority?
victims with local injuries without immediate complications & can wait several hours for medical attention
who is given last priority?
dead or no hope of living --multiple severe injuries
top/highest priority --amputations, impalement
second priority --simple fractures
local injuries --walking around wounded with minor injuries (cuts & abrasions)
stabilization of community and return of disaster area to its previous status
the government; business community
who take the lead in rebuilding efforts? provide economic support?
continuing death, chronic illness, and/or disability population shift if recovery prolonged contamination of food/water supplies (infectious diseases) decreased access to care PTSD & delayed stress reaction (DSR)
adverse health effects after disaster
occurs at time of disaster intense excitement and concern for survival
post-disaster period (2 wk-2 mo) individuals feel support from government
several months to a year or more contains unexpected delays in receiving aid
several years attempt to rebuild
extreme and widespread property damage serious and ongoing financial problems high prevalence of trauma when human intent cause the disaster
4 factors that increase the risk of long-term mental health problems
use of force or violence against people or property in violation of the criminal laws of the US for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom
can be easily disseminated or transmitted from person-to-person
results in high mortality rates
have the potential for major public health impact
might cause public panic & social disruption & require special attention for public health preparedness
categories of bioterrorism agents
highest priority; easily transmitted & have high mortality rates
small sore that develops to blister, then skin ulcer with a black area in center; does NOT hurt
if left untreated. 80% of infected individuals do not die
nausea, loss of appetite, bloody diarrhea, fever followed by bad stomach pain
more serious, 1/4 - more than 1/2 of cases lead to death
first s/s cold/flu-like later s/s cough, chest discomfort, SOB, tiredness & muscle aches
half cases end in death; more severe
*anthrax incubation period 1 wk-42 days; Cipro with antianthrax vaccine to prevent anthrax infection
incubation period 7-17 days
s/s: high fever, fatigue, severe HA, *rash that turns to pus-filled lesions*, vomiting, delirium, excessive bleeding
no cure; *international health emergency!!* dept of homeland security becomes involved
detect outbreak (most crucial aspect) determine cause ID factors that place people at risk implement measures to control outbreak inform medical & public communities about tx, health consequences, & preventive measures
response to bioterrorism
Push Package 1. oral abx & supplies 2. IV drugs & supplies 3. chemical antidotes & related supplies 4. airway supplies 5. pediatric supplies
Vendor Managed Inventory --resupply push package --supplement push package stock --majority of SNS assets are in VMI Roles
coordinated by dept of homeland security, must have federal order