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Chapter 4: Carbohydrate Structure and Function
Terms in this set (48)
In what two ways are carbohydrates organized?
1. their number of carbon atoms
2. functional groups
Three-carbon sugars are _______ .
Four-carbon sugars are ________ .
Sugars with aldehydes as their most oxidized group are _________ .
Sugars with ketones as their most oxidized group are __________ .
The nomenclature of all sugars is based on the D and L forms of ___________ .
glyceraldehyde (carbonyl carbon C-1)
The aldose and ketose carbons can participate in ___________ bonds.
Sugars with the -OH group on the right are ___________ .
Sugars with the -OH group on the left are _______ .
The simplest ketone sugar (ketose) is _________ .
For most ketoses on the MCAT, the carbonyl carbon is _____.
Common names of F frequently tested sugars:
Common names of F frequently tested sugars:
_____________ are compounds that have the same chemical formula but they differ from one another only in terms of the spatial arrangement of their component atoms.
Stereoisomers (optical isomers)
D and L forms of the same sugar are _________ .
enantiomers (nonidentical, nonsuperimposable mirror images)
The same sugars, in different optical families are _______ .
Example of an enantiomer:
D-glucose and L-glucose
___________ are nonsuperimposable configurations of molecules with similar connectivity. They differ in at least one, but not all, chiral carbons.
What are the two types of diastereomers?
________ are a subtype of epimers that differ at the anomeric carbon.
Example of an epimer:
D-ribose and D-arabinose who differ only at C-2
________________ are a subtype of diastereomers that differ at exactly one chiral carbon.
_____________ describes the ring formation of carbohydrates from their straight-chain forms.
When rings form, the anomeric carbon can tae on either a _____ or _____ conformation.
alpha or beta
__________ form as a result of glycosidic bonding between two monosaccharide subunits.
____________ have the -OH on the anomeric carbon TRANS to the free -CH2OH group.
_____________ have the -OH on the anomeric carbon CIS to the free -CH2OH group.
_______________ provide a good way to represent 3-D structure.
Cyclic compounds can undergo _____________ , in which they shift from one anomeric form to another with the straight-chain form as an intermediate.
___________ are single carbohydrate units, with glucose as the most commonly observed monomer.
Monosacchardes can undergo three main reactions:
3. glycoside formation
Aldoses can be oxidized to ______ and reduced to _________ .
oxidized = aldonic acids
reduced = alditols
Sugars that can be oxidized are reducing agents themselves and can be detected by reacting _______ or ________ reagents.
Tollen's or Benedict's
Sugars with a -H replacing an -OH are termed ___________ .
Sugars can react with carboxylic acids and their derivatives, forming _______ .
_________ is a similar reaction in which a phosphate ester is formed by transferring a phosphate group from ATP onto a sugar.
_____________ is the basis for building complex carbohydrates and requires the anomeric carbon to link to another sugar.
The ______________ is the new chiral center formed in ring closure; it was the carbon containing the carbonyl in the straight-chain form.
What are the three most common dissacharides?
1. sucrose (glucose-alpha 1,2-fructose)
2. lactose (galactose- beta 2,4-glucose)
3. maltose (glucose- alpha, 1,4-glucose)
_____________ are long chains of monosaccharides linked together by glycosidic bonds.
A polysaccharide composed entirely of glucose (or any other monosaccharide) is a ________________ .
A polymer made up of more than one type of monosaccharide is considered a ____________ .
____________ is the main structural component for plant cell walls and is a main source of fiber in the human diet.
____________ function as a main energy storage form for plants.
What are two different starches?
___________ cleaves amylose at the nonreducing end of the polymer (acetal end) to yield maltose.
___________ cleaves randomly along the amylose chain to yield shorter polysaccharide chains, maltose, and glucose.
_________ functions as a main energy storage form for animals.
__________ functions by cleaving the glucose from the nonreducing end of a glycogen branch and phosphorylating it, producing glucose-1-phosphate.
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