Terms in this set (78)
When and where was Napoleon Bonaparte born?
1769 in Corsica, an island in the Med. Sea, south of France
Why was Napoleon sent to France?
He received a royal scholarship to study at a military school in France
What did his education lead to?
Led to his comission in 1785 as a lieutenant in the French Army
Why was Napoleon disliked?
He was short, spoke with an Italian accent and had little money
How did Napoleon rose through the ranks of the French Army?
in 1792, he became captain, then at 24 became a brigadier general, then in 1796, he was made commander of the French armies in Italy
What qualities did Napoleon have?
Confidence, charm, ability to make quick decisions, and keen intelligence
What happened in 1797? why was Napoleon called a conquering hero??
He was given command of an army to invade Britain. Knowing that the army wasnt ready to invade Britain. They invaded Egypt and threatening India to strike indirectly at Britain. The British controlled the seas, and cut off Napoleon's army in Egypt. The French were defeated and returned to Paris
What happened in 1799?
Napoleon issued a coup d' etat.
What is a coup d' etat?
a small party that overthrows the government
What did the coup d'etat of 1799 call the new government? Who was the consul?
It was called the consulate. France was still a republic but Napoleon held absolute power and became consul for life. and crowned himself Emperor Napoleon.
What did Napoleon do as the first Consul?
Appointed members of bureaucracy, controlled army,conducted foreign affaris, influenced legislature
Why would France accept a dictator?
He brought stability, lowered prices, the French were exhhausted by constant warfare.
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Codification of Civil Law
There were 300 different codes existed prior to the French Revolution. Napoleon established 7 code of laws.
What is the most important law?
The Civil Law aka Napoleonic Code.
The Civil Law (Napoleonic Code)
It says all citizens are equal before the law/ no rank. They have the right to choose a profession/occupation. They have the freedom of religion/ tolerance. Ended all forms of feudalism/ serfdom/ slavery. Protected the property rights of individuals. Interests of employers were safe guared. Trial by jury
Does this law help women?
No. Daughters lost rights to inherit property. Women have difficulty gainning divorces. Property is transfered to husband. Women treated as minors in lawsuits.
A new bureaucracy
Napoleon developed a powerful, centralized administrative machine.Promotion was to be based on ability. Opening government careers to indviduals based on their ability was one change the middle class had wanted before the revolution. Created a new aristocracy based on merit in the state service.
What are the three parts of Napoleon's Grand Empire?
French Empire, Dependant States, and Allied States
inner core of the Grand Empire. Consisted of an enlarged France extending to the Rhine in the east and including the western half of Italy north of Rome.
were kingdoms under rule of Napoleon's relatives. These states were Spain, Holland, Italy, Swiss Republic, Grand Duchy of Warsaw and the Confederation of the Rhine
Were those defeated by Napoleon and forced to join his struggle against Britain. It was Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Sweden
How did Napoleon spread the principles of the Revolution?
By trying to destroy the old law in the inner core and dependent states. Napoleon decreed equality of opportunity with offices open to talents, equality before law, and religious toleration
What were the two reasons Napoleon's Grand Empire collasped?
the survival of Great Britain and the froce of nationalism.
Why was Britain able to survive?
Due primarily to its sea power. It was almost invulnerable to military attack.
What happened at Trafalgar in 1805
The Franco-Spanish fleet disaster. They were defeated by Britain
Why did Napoleon created the Continental System?
To defeat Britain. It was to stop British goods from reaching the European continent to be sold there. They wanted to weaken Britain economically so it can be possible to destroy its ability to wage war.
Was the Continental System good?
It failed because allied states resented that they couldn't trade with the British. So some started to cheat. New markets in the Middle East and in Latin America gave Britain new outlets for its goods.
the unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols
Disaster in Russia
The Russias left the Continental System. Napoleon invaded the country. In June 1812, they invaded but Russian forces retreated and burned their own villages to keep Napoleon's army from finding food. Napoleon and his army abandoned Moscow and retreated but most of them died because of horrible winter conditions.
How did the disaster in Russia influence the other European states?
They rose up and attacked the crippled French army. Paris was captured in March 1814, Napoleon was sent into exile on Elba.
When Napoleon was in exile who was in charge?
Louis XVIII the brother of Louis XVI
How was Napoleon brought to Paris on March 20,1815?
Troops were sent to capture him
What happened at Waterloo on June 18,1815
Napoleon met a combined Birtish and Prussian Army under the Duke of Wellington and suffered a bloody defeat. This time Napoleon was exiled permanently.
Where was Napoleon exiled for the second time?
St. Helena, a small island in the South Atlantic and died there.
Where was Elba
On the med. sea, off the coast of Italy
How did Napoleon rise to power?
He was a popular general;won many battles, coup d'etat, became emperor and dominated most of Europe
Failed to conquer Russia,exiled to Elba,Returned to rule only 100 days, lost battle of waterloo and exiled to St.Helena
What was the impact of Napoleon?
Created a system of laws from 300 to 7. Concordat of 1801. Centralized gov't with positions chosen by merit. improved education. Spread ideas of the revolution and nationalism
What were the bad things by Napoleon?
Censorship, women lost rights and despotism
When was the Continental System created?
After the battle of Trafaglar
Why did Russia drop out of the system?
They wanted to trade with the British and were afraid of Napoleon's dependant states
What did the Congress of Vienna decides to do?
To turn back the clock. To pretend the revolution never happened and punish the French
Concert of Europe
A system in which Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain wanted to prevent revolutions and enforced the arrangements created by the Congress of Vienna; resulted from the post-Napoleon era Quadruple Alliance
Geography of Latin America
Islands in the carribean, mountains, rainforests, organization was difficult causing different cultures forming
Causes of the Revolutions
Colonial Class System
Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos or Mulattoes, Native Americans or African slaves
born in Spain;highest class
born in colonies of european descent. (most people of this class were leaders of the revolutiions)
Mestizos and Mulattoes
Mestizos-native americans and europeans Mulattoes-african and european
Native American and African Slaves
Causes of the independence movement
Tensions between ethnic and social groups. French and American Revolutions, ENlightment ideas, limited freedoms under spanish rule,european nations were fighting against Napoleon and less focused on their colonies
1697-became a French colony, produced sugar cane and coffee and over half million slaves
Who was Haiti's revolutionary leader?
Toussaint L'Ouverture (started as a slave)
Why was a rebellion in Haiti led?
Treatment of the slaves and mulattoes
Events in the Haitian Revolution
1790-rebellion against slave owners. 1802-Napoleon sends troops-Toussaint agrees to an armistice,sent to prison instead and dies
When Toussaint died, did the revolution stop?
No, rebels kept rebelling. 1804- won independance and names new nation of Haiti
Who was the leader of the Northern South American Revolution?
"the Libberator", George Washington of South America, Creole from Venezuela
Why was a rebellion in Northern South America led?
Spain controlled everything,treatment of classes by Spanish, Peninsuolares have hold local power, Creoles have none yet they live there full time
Events in the Northern South American Revolution
Liberates Venezuela in 1811, lead to wars for independence in other colonies until 1821 in hopes for a unified South America,Grand Columbia
Results of the South American (north)
Liberated Venezuela,Columbia,Ecuadar,Bolivia,Peru, and Panama
Who was the leader(s) of the SOuthern South America Revolution?
Jose de San Martin (creole from Argentina) Bernado O' Higgins (Creole from Chile)
Why was a rebellion in Southern SOuth America led?
treatment of classes by Spanish,Peninsulares held all power, Creole held none
Events in the Southern South American Revolution?
1810-1818 wars for idependence. San Martin worked w/ Bolivar for a short time
Results from the Southern South American Revolution?
San Martin liberates Argentina,Chile,Peru,Urugray,Brazil
Who was the leader of the Brazil Revolution?
Perdo I (prince of portugal)
Why was a revolution in Brazil take place?
ROyal flees Portuga; b/c Napoleon took over
Events in the Brazil Revolution?:
1815-Brazil is given "equal" states with Portugal, allows themm to control their economy
Results of the Brazil Revolution?
1821- King returns to Portugal. Pedro stays to rule and refues to go home. 1922-declares independence from Portugal with Pedro as emperor.
Who were the leader(s) of the Mexican Revolution
Father Miguel Hidalgo (father of Mexican Independence), Jose Morelos, and Agustin de Horbide
Why was there a Mexican Revolution?
Treatment of classes, government of New Spain
Events in the Mexican Revolution?
1810-Hidalgo revolts with Creoles, caught and executed. Morelos continues until he was caught and executed in 1815, civil war breaks out
Results of the Mexican Revolution?
1821-Agustin de Hurbide wins independence and rules briefly as emperor. Mexico will face instability after independence.
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
guaranteed independence of Latin America. Stops possibl re-colonization by Europe
How did the Concert of Europe react to the Monroe Doctrine?
wanted Spain to reclaim former colonies in 1820s. U.S. wanted to share national resources and markets from Latin America
President Monroe responded to Concert of Europe...
didnt trust their Europe's prospal to act joinly against European invention. Recongized most independent nations
Effects of the Latin American Revolutions
Independence from Spain, new nations and government formed, ethnic and social groups worked together, new nations will struggle and not all will benefit from independence. Independence brought more proverty