Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (64)
An electronic component used for adjusting the bass, midrange, and treble frequencies of an audio signal or output channel.
An electronic component used to convert an analog signal to a digital signal or binary stream.
A device used to connect one type of hardware device to another of a different kind. Audio adapters are used often to connect the ends of cables that are natively incompatible with one another.
Automatic gain control. A feature often included on recording devices that, when activated, causes the device to automatically adjust the signal amplitude (gain). AGC is not recommended for most professional audio recording situations.
Audio Interchange File Format. An uncompressed audio file format created by Apple Computer for recording and transmission of digitally sampled sound.
Or natural or nat sound. Naturally occurring background sounds that occur in an uncontrolled recording environment (on location or field recording).
Or gain. A sound pressure wave's intensity, or dynamic pressure. The strength or magnitude of an audio signal that humans perceive as loudness.
The electronic reproduction of sound.
A three-conductor cable design, whereby the impedance or resistance of the current is the same in both directions. Professional XLR cables are balanced, and thus have a dedicated shield. For this reason, they are less susceptible to external sources of interference during the recoding process.
Refers to low-frequency sounds in the range of 20-320 Hz.
A component used on audio mixers and certain vocal microphones to reduce proximity effect distortion.
The polar pattern for microphones designed to pick up sound equally from the front and rear of the element.
In digital audio sampling, this is the number of bits used to encode the value of a given sample.
A sequence of data in binary form.
A device that allows the audio operator to extend the microphone 6 to 12 feet into the scene where the subject or actors are located.
Or unidirectional. The polar pattern for microphones designed to pick up sound from only one direction.
Waveform distortion that occurs when too much amplification is applied to the audio signal during recording or mixing.
Short for coder-decoder. A computer program or algorithm designed for encoding and decoding audio and/or video into raw digital bitstreams.
The process of reencoding data using fewer bits.
A phase in the propagation cycle of a sound wave where molecules are pushed closer together, leading to an increase in molecular density and sound pressure. This is the compression phase and is represented by the portion of the waveform above the horizontal axis (time).
A type of microphone design using a capacitor to record variations in amplitude and frequency. Condenser microphones require an external power source (battery or phantom power).
Or wrapper. A unique kind of file format used for bundling and storing the raw digital bitstreams that codecs encode.
A logarithmic unit of measurement used to quantify the sound pressure level (SPL) or magnitude of a sound wave.
A type of microphone design that uses acoustical energy and mechanical vibration as the means for producing the electromagnetic signal required for analog recording.
This difference in loudness from the quietest point to the loudest in an audio recording.
Or equalization. The process of altering the frequency or pitch of an audio signal.
The relative low or high pitch of sound measured in hertz (Hz) units (cycles per second).
A microphone specifically designed for the talent or performer to
hold during a recording session or live performance.
A padded listening device worn over the ears for subjective monitoring of the audio signal during recording.
An audio signal recorded with a bit depth of 24-bits and a sampling rate of 96 kHz.
Or lapel or lav microphone. A low-profile microphone designed with an electret condenser transducer element. May be attached directly to the talent's clothing. Ideal for speech and vocal acquisition (interviews) in settings where background noise is minimal.
A recording instrument used to convert sound waves into an electrical equivalent that can be stored, transmitted, and played back through an audio sound system.
Refers to medium-frequency sounds in the range of 320 and 5,120 Hz.
A miniature version of the phono plug with a 1/8" TS or TRS connector.
Or audio monitoring. A two-step process that includes (1) the objective act of measuring sound intensity (in dB units) and setting the record levels, and (2) the subjective act of listening to the audio signal as it is being recorded.
A popular consumer audio compression codec that's used to reduce the file size of a digital recording by a factor of 10:1, allowing the user to fit thousands, rather than hundreds, of songs on a portable music player.
A technique that eliminates twisting a cable as it is wrapped into a coil for storage.
A 48-volt (+48V) electric current that's applied by the recording device or mixer to the capacitor of a condenser microphone through an attached microphone cable.
The sound caused by releasing blocked air in speech, particularly
from the pronunciation of the hard consonants b, d, g, k, p, and t.
A visual reference to how well a microphone picks up sound
within 360° of its central axis.
An electronic component included in recording devices and mixers for boosting the strength of an incoming microphone signal during recording.
An acoustic phenomenon that boosts the performer's vocal bass frequencies as he or she moves progressively closer to the microphone diaphragm.
Pulse-Code Modulation (PCM)
An industry-standard method for professionally recording sound, using the technique of sampling to reduce a continuous signal into a sequence of discrete samples that can be defined mathematically.
The mathematical process of assigning discrete numerical values to each voltage measurement in a digital sample.
A phase in the propagation cycle of a sound wave where molecules are pulled apart, resulting in a decrease in molecular density and sound pressure. Rarefaction is denoted as the portion of the waveform below the horizontal axis. The lowest point on the waveform is called the trough and indicates the moment of lowest sound pressure.
Developed by the Radio Corporation of America in the early 1940s for connecting phonographs (or record players) to amplifiers. Today, they are used for connecting both the audio and video signal paths of a diverse array of consumer electronic devices, including television monitors, gaming consoles, projectors, etc.
A type of microphone design that uses a thin metal ribbon of corrugated metal, usually aluminum, as the transduction element. Ribbon microphones are technically superior to moving-coil designs because they respond to sound bi-directionally, from both the front and the back of the element.
Or sampling rate. In a digital recording system, indicates the number of samples (or measurements) recorded each second. Designated in kilohertz (kHz) units. Professional audio is recorded at a sample rate of 44.1 kHz, or 44,100 samples per second.
Or ultracardioid. A microphone with an extremely narrow pickup pattern.
Short for sound on tape. A term used to describe synchronized audio captured on location at the time of a video or film recording
A natural phenomenon that involves the transmission of an oscillating pressure wave through a physical space (solid, liquid, or gas).
A test recording conducted for the purpose of adjusting the record levels to an appropriate setting on the VU meters.
Sound Pressure Level (SPL)
The intensity or magnitude of a sound pressure wave.
Sound Pressure Wave
A mechanical wave created through molecular vibration that humans perceive as sound.
Supercardioid, hypercardioid, and ultracardioid microphone
Members of the cardioid microphone family. Each progression (from super- to ultra) comes with a narrower pickup field and an expanded area of sound rejection from the rear of the microphone.
The process of converting the acoustical waveform signature of a sound wave into an electrical voltage signal bearing the amplitude and frequency imprint of the recorded sound (as with a microphone).
Refers to high-frequency sounds in the range of 5,120 to 20,000 Hz.
Or phono plug. A family of unbalanced connectors designed for simple patching and short cable runs. A TS (tip and sleeve) connector is a two-wire version of the phono plug. A TRS (tip, ring and sleeve) connector is the three-wire stereo version of the phone plug. TRS connectors are commonly found on stereo headphones.
A two-conductor cable design, whereby the shield also functions as the signal return wire, creating a state of unbalanced impedance or resistance across the two wires. Unbalanced cables are highly susceptible to external sources of interference and should only be used for shorts runs.
A balance audio connector used on professional microphones and audio equipment.
Or volume-unit meter. A physical or virtual component that displays the strength of the microphone signal (in decibel units) after it has passed through the system preamp.
WAV or WAVE
Waveform Audio File Format. An uncompressed audio file format developed jointly by Microsoft and IBM for recording and transmission of digitally sampled sound.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Digital Media: Sound Quiz
SOUND DESIGN VOCABULARY
Sound Design Final
Sound for the Stage Final