12 terms

Drugs

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

drugs that induce p450- increase metabolism of drugs, make them ineffective
Ethanol
Rifampin
Phenobarbital
Carbamazepine
Griseofulvin
Phenytoin
drugs that inhibit p450- decrease metabolism, drug toxicity
Isoniazid
Erythromycin
Cimetidine
Azoles
Grapefruit juice
Ritonavir
maintenance dose

loading dose
maintenance dose = steady state Conc x Clearance / F

Loading dose = steady state conc x Vd / F
mechanism of action of Biguanides- metformin
decreases insulin resistance and increases peripheral glucose utilization (inhibits GNG)

SE- lactic acidosis; increased risk with renal insufficiency
MOA of Thiazolidinediones- Pioglitazone, Rosiglitazone
activate nuclear transcription of PPAR-gamma
decrease insulin resistance

SE- fluid retention and weight gain
moa of Sulfonylureas- 1st gen and 2nd gen
insulin secretagogue- increases insulin secreiton by inhibiting beta cell K+ ATP channels, increases calcium influx and insulin release

1st gen: Chlorpropramide, Tolbutamide

2nd gen: Glimepiride, Glyburide (long acting), Glipizide (short action)

SE- hypoglycemia** esp with long acting
weight gain
mechanism of Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin
SGLT-2 inhibitors
work at kidney proximal tubule- prevent glucose reabsorption and increase excretion

SE- UTI's, hypotension
moa of Exenatide, Liraglutide
GLP1 agonist
increase glucose dependent insulin secretion
decrease glucagon
delays gastric emptying

SE- pancreatitis
moa Sitagliptin, Saxagliptin
increase endogenous GLP1 and GIP
increase beta cell insuling release- glucose dependent

SE- nasopharyngitis
moa Acarbose and Miglitol
alpha glucosidase inhibitors
decrease disaccharide absorption at intestines

sE- diarrhea, flatulence
what are the body's counter regulatory mechanisms for hypoglycemia
glucagon- increases glucose by stimulating GNG and glycogenolysis

EPI- limits glucose use by insulin sensitive tissues ; stimulates GNG and glycogenolysis
*caution because can mask hypoglycemia

Growth hormone, cortisol
short, intermediate and long acting insulin
short: aspart, lispro
regular insulin- short*used IV for DKA
intermediate- NPH
Long acting: Glargine, Detemir