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24 terms

Apologia General Science (Sonlight) Module 4

Vocabulary from the Sonlight Instructors Guide
STUDY
PLAY
Applied science
The motivation behind it is aimed at trying to find something useful
Technology
Is a new process or machine that makes life better or makes a job easier
Simple Machine
A device that either multiplies or redirects a force
Force
A push or pull exerted on an object to change that object's velocity
Fulcrum
A fixed point
Lever
Simple machine that magnifies either force or motion
Effort
The force being applied to the lever
Resistance
The weight the machine is manipulating
Mechanical Advantage
The amount by which force or motion is magnified in a simple machine
Mechanical advantage for the lever
Distance from the fulcrum to effort divided by the distance from fulcrum to resistance
First class lever
The fulcrum is positioned between the effort and resistance
Second class lever
The fulcrum is positioned at one end of the bar and the resistance is between the fulcrum and the effort
Third class lever
The fulcrum is at one end of the bar and the effort is between the fulcrum and the resistance
Diameter
The length of a straight line that travels from one side of a circle to another and passes through the center of a circle
Mechanical advantage for the wheel and axle
Diameter of the wheel divided by the diameter of the axle
Pulley
A grooved wheel that rotates freely on a frame
Block and tackle
Multiple pulley system. Mechanical advantage for pulleys in a block and tackle = numbers of pulleys used
Inclined Plane
Allows you to slide the load up rather than lifting it straight.
Mechanical advantage of the inclined plane
Length of the slope divided by height
Wedge
Generally used to separate things
Mechanical advantage for the wedge
Length of the slope divided by height
Pitch
The vertical distance between the threads of the screw
Mechanical advantage of the screw
circumfrence divided by pitch
Circumference
The distance around a circle, equal to 3.1416 times the circle's diameter