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French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.

King Henry II

increased number of criminal cases tried in the Kings court and devised means for taking property cases from local courts to royal ones. expanded kings power. developed common law. claimed right to punish clergy. had Thomas a Becket assasinated because of his oppostion

Catherine de Medici

wife of Henry II, influenced her sons after the end of there father's rein. She placed an alliance with the ultra-Catholics (the militant Catholics), which was led by the second most powerful family in France, The Guise Family. She permitted the Guise Family their own independent army,which they would use to take out the other religions residing within the French Borders. This led to the civil wars in France and also the St. Bartholome's Day Massacre.

The Guise Family

This noble, Catholic family dominated large parts of France and challenged the authority of the French throne. As the strongest family, it concentrated its influence in northern and eastern France.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

wipes out protestantism, kills 7,000 people, france remains catholic

Henry the Navarre


Charles IX

King of France from 1560 to 1574 whose reign was dominated by his mother Catherine de Medicis (1550-1574)

Henry III

son of Henry II of France and the last Valois to be king of France (1551-1589)

War of the three Henrys

This was the last of the wars that occurred over the religious differences in France, between the Catholics (Henry III of France and Henry of Guise) and Protestants (Henry IV)

Edict of Nantes

1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants

King Phillip II

started the Spanish Armada, but was defeated

Battle of Lepanto

Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the Pope

The Spanish Netherlands

Land attempted to be taken by Spain (Phillip II). Led to William of Oranges resistance and the Pacification of Ghent (POA)

Duke of Alva

Sp. Nobleman and military commander(20,000) who PII sends to Netherlands to suppress relig. and political dissidents. Boasted killing 18,000 ppl in 6 yrs. of occupation.

Council of Trouble

after the Calvinist tried a rebellion, king Phillip II got stricter on them and he tried putting in some big taxes, but the most successful thing he did was council of trouble which was a campaign of psychological terror

William of Orange

Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.

Sea Beggars

group of calvinists that rampaged through catholic churches in many parts on the Netherlands, smashed windows, burned books, destroyed altars, and ruined all the rich ornaments

Duke of Parma

Philip II's nephew who crushed the Dutch revolts by seiging Antwerp.

Union of Utrecht

The union created for the Netherlands that granted their independence against Spain

United Provinces

The seven provinces united in 1579 that formed the basis of the republic of the Netherlands; they appealed to England for aid to fight Spain.

Elizabeth I of England

She supported the northern protestant cause as a safeguard against Spain attacking England. She had her rival, Mary, Queen of Scots, beheaded. Elizabeth I of England succeeded Mary and reestablished Protestantism in England. (p.471-73, 494-96, 521) User-contributed

Mary Queen of Scots

queen of Scotland from 1542 to 1567, The relative and heir of Elizabeth. Queen of Scotland and full name is Mary Stuart and known Catholic. She became the queen of England and in 1568, she escaped the problems in Scotland and flew to England to have the throne. She plotted with Philip II's ambassadors to kill Elizabeth and seize the English throne. The mother of James I, and she delayed the plans of Philip II of Spain to invade England and force a Catholic ruler on the English citizens. She signed the Scottish queen's death warrant. In 1587, Mary was beheaded.


Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.

Sir Francis Drake

English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596)

The Spanish Armada

One of the largest military fleets in the history of warfare which was sent to attack England in 1588. The smaller English fleet was able to defeat the armada by using its ease of maneuverability and ended Spain's domination of the Atlantic Ocean and made England the power.

contributing factors to the 'war craft craze'


factors that led to the decline of the craze


Defenestration of Prague

The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.

Battle of White Mountain

Great Catholic victory in the Bohemian phase which dealt a crushing blow to Fredrick V's power.

Christian IV

king of denmark, lutheran, tried to help protestant by leading an army into northern germany


Austrian general who fought for the Hapsburgs during the Thirty Years' War (1583-1634)

Edict of Restitution

proclamation that reaffirmed the illegality of Calvinism in Denmark

Gustavus Adolphus

joins Thirty Years' War in 1629, king of Sweden, Protestant leader, stands up for fellow Protestants, military genius, wins a lot for Protestant team; supported by Richelieu, who wants to end Hapsburg power; killed in 1632 at battle of Luetzen

Battle of Lutzen

(Swedish Phase) Sweds won against Wallenstein (Catholic) and protestantism is established in Norther Germany and Catholicism is established in Southern Germany (in this battle Gustav Adolphus dies)

Peace of Westphalia

the peace treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War in 1648


rapid simultaneous discharge of firearms

List new developments in military arts


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