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1) The protostome developmental sequence arose just once in evolutionary history, resulting in two main subgroups-Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. What does this finding suggest?
C) Division of these two groups occurred after the protostome developmental sequence appeared.
2) The common ancestor of the protostomes had a coelom. What does this suggest?
D) The body cavity evolved before the lophophore.
3) The presence of a lophophore in a newly discovered species would suggest that the species ________.
E) is a suspension feeder
4) Which one of the following is a lophotrochozoan?
5) Adaptations to terrestrial environments evolved independently in arthropods, mollusks, nematodes, and annelids. What logical conclusion would you make from this statement?
B) The common ancestor of all these groups was probably aquatic.
6) Nematodes and arthropods both ________.
C) grow by shedding their exoskeleton
7) You find what you believe is a new species of animal. Which of the following characteristics would enable you to argue that it is more closely related to a flatworm than it is to a roundworm?
C) It has no coelom.
8) A(n) ________ has a crown of ciliated tentacles that function in feeding.
9) Which one of these mollusk groups can be classified as suspension feeders?
10) Which mollusk group can be described as having several calcium carbonate plates along their dorsal side?
11) What would be the best anatomical feature to look for to distinguish a gastropod from a chiton?
D) number of shell plates
12) What is the only group of Mollusca that does NOT have a radula?
13) In your laboratory, you examine a vial of freshwater from a local pond. You notice several unfamiliar small (less than 1 millimeter in length) animals and decide to study them. You observe that the animals have a coelom, eat microscopic food particles, reproduce by parthenogenesis, and have offspring that do not undergo any larval stages. What else would you expect to observe about this organism?
A) a corona
14) You find a wormlike animal while scuba diving and want to determine whether it is a nudibranch, a polychaete, or a flatworm. Finding which of the following traits would best help you classify the mystery animal?
A) bristle-like structures on tiny appendages
15) Which of the following organisms would you expect to have the largest surface-area-to-volume ratio? Assume that all of the following are the same total length.
E) a platyhelminth
16) A cephalopod's tentacles are modified from its ________.
17) If a lung were to be found in a mollusk, where would it be located?
A) mantle cavity
18) Which mollusk clade includes members that undergo embryonic torsion?
19) A terrestrial mollusk without a shell belongs to which clade?
20) The stingers of honeybees have a function most similar to that of ________.
21) The spiracles and tracheae of insects have a function most similar to that of ________.
B) dorsal plummules
22) The antennae of insects have a function most similar to that of ________.
23) Sarah observed that the mystery pond organisms never come up to the pond's surface. If she catches one of these organisms and observes closely, perhaps dissecting the organism, she should find ________.
24) A land snail, a clam, and an octopus all have ________.
A) a mantle
25) In adult arthropods, the hemocoel ________.
A) provides space for the internal organs to grow and function
26) Which adaptation is unique to insects among all protostomes?
B) the ability to move by flying
27) You find a multilegged animal in your garden and want to determine if it is a centipede or a millipede. You take the animal to a university where a myriapodologist quickly tells you that you have found a centipede. Which of the following may have allowed her to make this distinction?
B) poisonous fangs
28) Whiteflies are common pest insects found on cotton, tomato, poinsettia, and many other plants. Nymphs are translucent and mostly sessile, feeding on their host plants' phloem (sap) from the undersides of leaves. They undergo incomplete metamorphosis into winged adults. Because whitefly nymphs cannot escape predation by moving, you hypothesize that their translucent bodies make them hard to spot by predators. How could you directly test this hypothesis?
B) Compare rates of predation on whitefly nymphs coated with a nontoxic dye vs. undyed whitefly nymphs.
29) All arthropods ________.
1. undergo complete metamorphosis
2. have jointed appendages
4. have segmented bodies
5. have an exoskeleton or cuticle
C) 2, 3, 4, and 5
32) How would a terrestrial centipede most likely benefit from the ability to close its spiracles? Closing spiracles would ________.
B) allow the centipede to retain more moisture in its tissues
33) Compare the graphs in the accompanying figure of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission for Cormocephalus morsitans and Scutigerina weberi. What hypothesis can you make about each centipede's habitat?
C) C. morsitans lives in a colder habitat than does S. weberi.
34) What would be the most direct effect of removing or damaging an insect's antennae? The insect would have trouble ________.
35) On which body segment are arthropod wings attached?
36) Which of the following are characteristics of arthropods?
1. protostome development
2. bilateral symmetry
3. a pseudocoelom
4. three embryonic germ layers
5. a closed circulatory system
C) 1, 2, and 4
37) Among the invertebrate phyla, phylum Arthropoda is unique in possessing members that have ________.
38) A shared derived characteristic for members of the arthropod subgroup that includes spiders would be the presence of ________.
39) You find a small animal with eight legs crawling up your bedroom wall. Closer examination will probably reveal that this animal also has ________.
A) simple, but not compound, eyes
40) A terrestrial animal species is discovered with the following larval characteristics: exoskeleton, system of tubes for gas exchange, and modified segmentation. A knowledgeable zoologist should predict that the adults of this species would also feature ________.
D) an open circulatory system
41) The possession of two pairs of antennae is a characteristic of ________.
42) In a tide pool, a student encounters an organism with a hard outer covering that contains much calcium carbonate, an open circulatory system, and gills. The organism could potentially be a crab, a shrimp, a barnacle, or a bivalve. The presence of which of the following structures would allow for the most certain identification of the organism?
A) a mantle
43) Sarah noticed the presence of many empty exoskeletons attached to emergent vegetation. These exoskeletons looked exactly like those of the largest of the "mystery organisms" she had seen in the pond. They also looked similar to the bodies of the dragonflies that patrolled the surface of the pond. If Sarah had learned a lot from her college biology class, what should she have concluded about the mysterious pond organisms?
A) They are larval dragonflies, destined to undergo incomplete metamorphosis.
44) If the pond organisms are larvae, rather than adults, Sarah should expect them to have all of the following structures, EXCEPT ________.
E) sex organs
45) Arthropods invaded land about 100 million years before vertebrates did so. This most clearly implies that ________.
E) arthropods have had more time to coevolve with land plants than have vertebrates
47) When considering the wormlike phyla within the protostomes, which feature is most useful in distinguishing groups?
C) molting as they grow larger
48) The heartworms that can accumulate within the hearts of dogs and other mammals have a pseudocoelom, an alimentary canal, and an outer covering that is occasionally shed. To which phylum does the heartworm belong?
49) A student observes a wormlike organism crawling about on dead organic matter. Later, the organism sheds its outer covering. One possibility is that the organism is a larval insect (like a maggot). However, it might be a member of the phylum ________, and one way to distinguish between the two possibilities is by looking for the presence or absence of ________.
D) Nematoda; a circulatory system
50) Nematode worms and annelid worms share which of the following features?
A) a digestive tract with two openings (a mouth and an anus)
51) Upon close inspection of movement in annelids and nematodes, you would notice an obvious difference. Nematodes tend to wriggle back and forth, while annelids tend to contract along their length as their girth swells and then thin out as they stretch. What anatomical feature explains this type of movement?
B) The nematodes lack circular muscle fibers.
52) The body cavity type for arthropods and mollusks can best be described as ________.
C) a reduced coelom
53) Arthropod exoskeletons and mollusk shells both ________.
C) help retain moisture in terrestrial habitats
54) Among protostomes, which morphological trait has shown the most variation?
B) type of body cavity (coelom vs. pseudocoelom vs. no coelom)
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