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Graduate Music History Review - Romantic
Terms in this set (55)
Music with no programmatic reference or story—music for its own sake.
In psychology, an idea that dominates a person's mind for a long period of time. In music, Berlioz used this term to describe the recurring theme that appeared in increasingly disturbing guises in all five movements of his Symphonie fantastique (1830)—this tune represents the woman who was the object of obsession in the work's programmatic story.
A German art song, performed by one singer accompanied by either piano or orchestra.
A musical theme or motive associated with a particular person, thing, emotion, or idea in a Musikdrama.
Using a small rhythmic and/or melodic figure as a building block for larger ideas throughout a movement or a multi-movement, as a means to unify the composition.
A musical style typical of the last decades of the 1800s and first decades of the 1900s, characterized by extreme largeness of scope and design, a mixture of various musical forms (e.g., opera and symphony), programmatic references, and heightened contrapuntal complexity. Often Post-Romanticism also embraces vivid religious or mystical fervor, a sense of longing, and a sense of the grim and the grotesque.
Instrumental music intended to tell a story, or give an impression of an image or specific idea.
A moderately-fast commoner's dance in 6/8 meter which replaced the aristocratic Minuet as the preferred 3rd movement dance used in four-movement Classic instrumental works after 1810. In the Romantic era, a scherzo is also single-movement piano works with a harshly dark and dramatic fervor.
A high-level means of unifying a work by basing it on a recurring but ever-developing main theme as a way of showing its spiritual metamorphosis.
A solo piano genre with a somewhat narrative style, favored by some Romantic composers, most notably Chopin and Brahms.
A fully-staged programmatic theatrical work for dancers and orchestra.
A one-movement programmatic work for solo piano.
A "study" piece that focuses on some technical aspect for the player to master on the instrument. Chopin Etude in C minor, Op. 10 No. 12 "Revolutionary" (c1831)
A"musical Mass" often refers to a musical setting of just the Mass Ordinary (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei). In the Romantic era, Masses continued to be written by Catholic composers such as Verdi and Bruckner, who wrote them in a more dramatic theatrical style.
A Polish folk dance usually in lively triple meter with a strong accent on the second or third beat of each measure.
A term usually associated with Wagner's German politically-driven theatrical works, in which music,
staging, costuming etc. all have the sole purpose to propel the dramatic story.
A piano genre established by John Field, and made famous by Chopin, suggesting quietness of night.
A dominant type of French opera in the nineteenth century, generally in 4 or 5 acts, which featured large-scale casts and orchestras, lavish spectacle and special effects, usually with plots centered around dramatic historic events.
A type of French opera that blends "grand opera" with "opera boufee."
light or satirical French opera similar to an operetta. Orphee auf enfers ("Orpheus in Hell") 1858 [this work spoofs the situation, and even includes the famous "Can-Can" as a dance in Hell]
A type of opera that is light in terms of both music and subject matter; closely related in English to musical theatre.
Italian opera with stories that aim to be more "true-to-life." Puccini La Bohéme (1896)
A large-scale religious work performed by solo singers, chorus, and orchestra without staging, scenery or costumes.
A multi-movement set of character pieces assembled together in a similar manner to a song cycle. Schumann Carnaval (1834-35).
A set of art-songs arranged intentionally as a cycle to depict an ongoing story, or based on the same literary source. Mahler Kindertotenlieder (1901-04).
A multi-movement programmatic work for orchestra. Berlioz Symphonie fantastique 1830
A multi-movement work for orchestra which makes use of 19th-century style elements, but which may or may not be programmatic. Bruckner, Symphony No. 7; Dvořák, Symphony No. 9
A one-movement programmatic work for orchestra. Smetana The Moldau 1874
The same motive or theme used in more than one movement of an instrumental work.
A musical structure that has no discernible form—the music keeps changing as it goes on, with no returning themes.
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
This German-born composer was the most revolutionary musician of the Classic and early Romantic eras. He excelled especially at the symphony, sonata, and string quartet, and brought music to powerful new heights of expression and socio-political influence--despite spending most of his career in complete deafness. Symphony No. 3 "Eroica" [symphony] 1803-4
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
He established the German art song (Lied) as an important genre in the 19th century. He wrote over 600 Lieder, as well as song cycles, symphonies, string quartets, sonatas, and Masses. Erlkönig [Lied] 1815
Giocchino Rossini (1792-1868)
This Italian opera composer wrote several of his earliest works in an early Romantic style before 1820. Il Barbiere di Siviglia [opera buffa] 1816
John Field (1782-1837)
An Irish-born early-Romantic composer, who also worked in Paris, Vienna, and Russia. He is known for his piano works, especially for inventing the nocturne.
Felix Mendelssohn (1809-47)
This German musical prodigy is known for his colorful symphonic music, piano miniatures, songs, and oratorios, and for his work as a conductor--in which he revived interest in the music of JS Bach. Elijah [oratorio] 1846
Hector Berlioz (1803-69)
This daring French composer and brilliant orchestrator composed the first truly programmatic symphony. He is known for his operas, songs, and programmatic orchestral works. Symphonie fantastique [program symphony] 1830
Fréderic Chopin (1810-49)
This Polish-born composer-pianist spent most of his brief career in Paris. He is especially known for his character pieces and piano concertos. Nocturne in E-flat major, Op. 9 No. 2 (1830-32).
Robert Schumann (1810-56)
He was important as a music critic, but is most remembered for his many songs and descriptive character pieces for piano. Carnaval, Op. 9 [piano cycle] 1834-35
Franz Liszt (1811-89)
This Hungarian composer-pianist was perhaps the most spectacular pianist in history. He is known for his piano music and orchestral symphonic poems. Piano Concerto No. 2 (1839-40)
Richard Wagner (1813-83)
This German theatrical innovator perfected the use of the Leitmotif in his Musikdramas, and paved the way for the expanded use of tonality and chromaticism in the 20th century. Der Ring des Nibelungen [Musikdrama] 1848-74
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)
This operatic Romantic dramatist can be considered the most important Italian composer of the 19th century. Rigoletto [opera seria] (1851)
Modest Musorgsky (1839-81)
This Russian composer is known as one of "The Five" Russian Romantic composers who endeavored to make a national musical style for their country. He is known for his opera Boris Godunov (1868), his symphonic poems such as Night on Bald Mountain (1867), and especially for his piano cycle Pictures at an Exhibition (1874) that was vividly orchestrated by Maurice Ravel in 1922.
Georges Bizet (1838-75)
He was the most renowned composer of French grand opera in the mid-Romantic era, but is most famous for his opera Carmen (1875) [opéra comique]--it is an opéra comique because it has spoken dialogue and sung French arias--the story of Carmen is actually quite dramatic and tragic.
Bedrich Smetana (1824-84)
He was the first important Czech (Bohemian) composer; known for his symphonic works and operas. The Moldau [symphonic poem] 1874
Jacques Offenbach (1819-80)
This French composer wrote nearly 100 operettas between 1850 and 1880 (such as Orphéee auf enters (Orpheus in Hades,1858). He is remembered mostly for his unfinished masterpiece--the 4-act "opéra fantastique", Les contes d'Hoffmann (The Tales of Hoffmann) 1851.
Charles Gounod (1818-93)
A French composer known for his grand opera Faust (1859), and his song-setting of the Ave Maria (based on a work by JS Bach).
Anton Bruckner (1824-1896)
An This late-Romantic Austrian composer is known for his rich, polyphonic and lengthy symphonies, as well as Masses, and motets. Symphony No. 7 [symphony] 1881-83
Johannes Brahms (1833-97)
He was the most important successor to Beethoven in the 19th century with regard to both symphonic and chamber music. Symphony No. 3 in F major [symphony] 1883
Peter Ilyitch Tchaikovsky (1840-93)
This late-Romantic composer was the first internationally-acclaimed Russian musician. He is known for his colorfully orchestrated ballets, concertos, opera, and symphonic works. The Nutcracker [ballet] 1892
Gabriel Fauré (1858-1924)
This late-Romantic French composer, organist and teacher brought French art song ("mélodie) and chamber music to the highest levels of sophistication. His musical style had a strong influence on many 20th-century composers. La bonne chanson [song cycle of French mélodie] (1892-94)
Giocomo Puccini (1858-1924)
A leading figure in the Italian operatic verismo (true-to-life) movement of the late 19th- early 20th-centuries. La Bohème [verismo opera] (1896)
Antonín Dvořák (c1841-1904)
The leading Czech (Bohemian) composer of the Romantic era; known for his symphonies, chamber works, operas, and songs. Symphony No. 9 ("From the New World") [symphony] 1893
Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)
The most important Austrian composer of the late Romantic era, and one of the greatest conductors and orchestrators in history. He is known for his highly-expressive and melancholy orchestrally-accompanied song cycles, and his massive symphonies, which are examples of post-Romanticism. Kindertotenlieder [song cycle] 1901-04
Richard Strauss (1864-1949
This German post-Romantic composer/conductor stretched Wagnerian Romanticism to greater extremes, and he also ventured into the realm of early expressionism in works such as Salome (1903). He is known for his intense operas and his symphonic poems. Also Sprach Zarathustra [symphonic poem] 1896
Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
The leader of the French "impressionist" movement in music. He was the first to move into a clearly modern manner of composition--clearly breaking with the Romantic sound dominated by the style of Wagner. Debussy is best known for his impressionistic piano works, symphonic poems, songs, and the opera Pelléas et Mélisande. Prélude à l'après d'un faune ("Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun") [symphonic poem] 1894
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Graduate Music History Review - Renaissance
Graduate Music History Review - Baroque
Graduate Music History Review - Classical
Graduate Music History Review - Modern
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