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natural law

a body of unchanging moral principles regarded as a basis for all human conduct.

natural right

any right that exists by virtue of natural law

enlightened despot

a form of absolute monarchy

laissez faire

an environment in which transactions between private parties are free from state intervention


a gather place for people under the roof of political right.


the control of the information and ideas circulated within a society

deficit spending

government spending in excess of revenue of funds raised by borrowing rather than from taxation


an act of sealing off a place to prevent goods or people form entering or leaving


the middle class (3rd estate)


after the French revolution, there were the nobles that moved out of France


patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts

sans culottes

a lower class Parisian republican in the French Revolution


the right to vote in political elections


a tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports


a direct vote of all the members of an electorate on an important public question like a change in the constitution

scorched-earth policy

a military strategy or operational method which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy


to give up power


the state of being barred from one's native country, typically for political reasons.

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