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56 terms

Psycology Ch. 2

Hockens and Hockents fifth edition text book
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sensory neurons
convey information about the environment, such as light or sound, from specialized receptor cells in the sense organs to the brain
motor neurons
communicate information to the muscles and glands of the body.
interneurons
communicate information between neurons.
glial cells
glia provide stuctural support for neurons throughout the nervous system. Also provide nutrition for neurons and remove waste products.
dendrites
short branching fibers. greek work 'tree'. recieve messages from other neurons. like a tree of a branch. span as far as dendrite reaches.
axon
single clongated tube that extends from the cell body in most though not all neurons. Axons carry information from the neuron to other cells in the body including other neurons glands and muscles.
myelin sheath
all neurons are surrounded by the myelin sheath., White, fatty covering formed by special glial cells. In much the same way that you can bundle together electrical wires if they are insulated with plastic, myelin helps insulate one axon from the axons of other neurons.
action potential
messages are gathered by the dendrites and cell body and then transmitted along the axon in the form of this brief electrical impulse.
stimulus threshold
Each neuron requires a minimum level of stimulation from other neurons or sensory receptors to activate it. This minimum level is the stimulus threshold.
resting potential
concentration of negative proteins inside the neuron is -70. This -70 is the resting potential.
synapse
the point of communication between two neurons
synaptic gap
The presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons are separated by a tiny, fluid-filled space called the synaptic gap
axon terminal
at the end of an axon are several small branches called axon terminals.
synaptic vesicles
floating in the interior fluid of the axon terminals are tiny sacs called synaptic vesicles
synaptic transmission
the entire process of transmitting information at the synapse is called synaptic transmission
reuptake
neurotransmitter molecules detach from the receptor and are reabsorbed by the presynaptic neuron so they can be recycled and used again.
GABA
gamma aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter found primarily in the brain
endorphins
number of chemicals manufactured by the brain
spinal reflexes
simple, automatic behaviors that occur without any brain involvement.
nerves
made up of large bundles of neuron axons
peripheral nervous system
comprises all the nerves outside the central nervous system that extend to the outer most layers of your body including the skin.
central nervous system
includes the brain and spinal cord.
sympathetic nervous system
body's emergency system, rapidly activating bodily systems to meet threats or emergencies.
parasympathetic nervous system
conserves and maintains physical resoures. calms you down after an emergency
endocrine system
made up of glands that are located throughout the body. Involves the use of chemical messengers to transmit information from one part of the body to the other.
hormones
messanger chemicals
pituitary gland
pea sized gland just under thebrain that regulates the release of hormones
adrenal medulla
produce hormones that are involved in the human stress response. Fight or flight response
adrenal glands
consist of adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex
adrenal cortex
outer gland. hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex also interact with the immune system. the bodys defense against invading viruses and bacteria
gonads
sex organs
functional plasticity
refers to the brains ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas. Depending on location and degree of damage
neurogenesis
the development of new neurons
brainstem
made up of the structures of the hindbrain and midbrain make up the brain region that is also called the brainstem
medulla
situated at the base of the brain directly abve the spinal cord.
pons
swelling of tissue represents the uppermost level of the hindbrain. pons means bridge and sorts infro from various other brain regions located higher up in the brain is relayed to the cerebellum via the pons. regular breathing
cerebellum
control of balance, muscle tone, and coordinated muscle movements. learning of habitual or automatic movements and motor skills.
reticular formation
composed of many groups of specialized neurons that project up to higher brain regions and down to the spinal cord. regulating attention and sleep
substantia nigra
involved in motor control and contains a large concentration of dopamine-producing neurons. means dark substance and this area is darly pigmentedhelps prepare other brain regions to initiate organized movements or actions.
forebrain
90% of brain.
cerebral cortex
devided into two cerebral hemispheres. cortex means bark and the cerebral cortex is the outer covering of the forebrain.
corpus callosum
bundle of axons connects the two cerebral hemispheres. serves as the primary communication link between the left and right cerebral hemispheres.
temporal lobe
contains the primary auditory cortex which recieves auditory information.
occipital lobe
includes the primary visual cortex where visual information is recieved
parietal lobe
involved in processing bodily or somatosensory information including touch temperature pressure and information from receptors in the mucles and joints.
frontal lobe
involved in planning initiating and executing voluntary movements.
limbic system
limbic means border and structures that mke up the limbic system form a border of sorts around the brainstem
hippocampus
embedded in temporal lobe in each hemisphere. involved in forming new memories
thalamus
procvesses and integrates sensory information: relay's sensory information to cerebral cortex
hypothalamus
links brain and endocrine system regulates hunger thirst sleep and sexual behavior
amygdala
involved in memory and emotion, especially fear and anger
Karl Wernicke
discovered another area in the left hemisphere that when damaged produced a different type of language distubance. "nonsense"
cortical localization
the idea that particular brain areas are associated with specific function
Pierre Paul Broca
treated patients who had great difficulty speaking but could comprehend written or spoken language
split brain operation
used to reduce recurring seizures in sever cases of epilepsy
Roger Sperry
studied differences between left and right hemispheres of the brain