convey information about the environment, such as light or sound, from specialized receptor cells in the sense organs to the brain
glia provide stuctural support for neurons throughout the nervous system. Also provide nutrition for neurons and remove waste products.
short branching fibers. greek work 'tree'. recieve messages from other neurons. like a tree of a branch. span as far as dendrite reaches.
single clongated tube that extends from the cell body in most though not all neurons. Axons carry information from the neuron to other cells in the body including other neurons glands and muscles.
all neurons are surrounded by the myelin sheath., White, fatty covering formed by special glial cells. In much the same way that you can bundle together electrical wires if they are insulated with plastic, myelin helps insulate one axon from the axons of other neurons.
messages are gathered by the dendrites and cell body and then transmitted along the axon in the form of this brief electrical impulse.
Each neuron requires a minimum level of stimulation from other neurons or sensory receptors to activate it. This minimum level is the stimulus threshold.
concentration of negative proteins inside the neuron is -70. This -70 is the resting potential.
The presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons are separated by a tiny, fluid-filled space called the synaptic gap
floating in the interior fluid of the axon terminals are tiny sacs called synaptic vesicles
the entire process of transmitting information at the synapse is called synaptic transmission
neurotransmitter molecules detach from the receptor and are reabsorbed by the presynaptic neuron so they can be recycled and used again.
peripheral nervous system
comprises all the nerves outside the central nervous system that extend to the outer most layers of your body including the skin.
sympathetic nervous system
body's emergency system, rapidly activating bodily systems to meet threats or emergencies.
parasympathetic nervous system
conserves and maintains physical resoures. calms you down after an emergency
made up of glands that are located throughout the body. Involves the use of chemical messengers to transmit information from one part of the body to the other.
produce hormones that are involved in the human stress response. Fight or flight response
outer gland. hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex also interact with the immune system. the bodys defense against invading viruses and bacteria
refers to the brains ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas. Depending on location and degree of damage
made up of the structures of the hindbrain and midbrain make up the brain region that is also called the brainstem
swelling of tissue represents the uppermost level of the hindbrain. pons means bridge and sorts infro from various other brain regions located higher up in the brain is relayed to the cerebellum via the pons. regular breathing
control of balance, muscle tone, and coordinated muscle movements. learning of habitual or automatic movements and motor skills.
composed of many groups of specialized neurons that project up to higher brain regions and down to the spinal cord. regulating attention and sleep
involved in motor control and contains a large concentration of dopamine-producing neurons. means dark substance and this area is darly pigmentedhelps prepare other brain regions to initiate organized movements or actions.
devided into two cerebral hemispheres. cortex means bark and the cerebral cortex is the outer covering of the forebrain.
bundle of axons connects the two cerebral hemispheres. serves as the primary communication link between the left and right cerebral hemispheres.
involved in processing bodily or somatosensory information including touch temperature pressure and information from receptors in the mucles and joints.
limbic means border and structures that mke up the limbic system form a border of sorts around the brainstem
procvesses and integrates sensory information: relay's sensory information to cerebral cortex
discovered another area in the left hemisphere that when damaged produced a different type of language distubance. "nonsense"
Pierre Paul Broca
treated patients who had great difficulty speaking but could comprehend written or spoken language