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Psychology Chapter 3
Neuroscience and The Brain
Terms in this set (54)
nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system. There are 1 trillion throughout the body. They communicate with other cells and transmit information that regulates behavior.
A cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receive messages from other neurons. Look like twisted branches of a tree.
The part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons. It has a long slim tubelike extension.
small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons.
A protective coat of fat and protein that wraps around the axon. prevents messages from short-circuiting one another. Also, it increases the velocity with which electrical impulses travel through axons.
All or none law
the rule that neurons are either on or off. There is no in-between stage.
the state in which there is a negative electrical charge of about -70 millivolts within a neuron. The stage before a neuron is triggered.
An electrical nerve impulse that travels through a neuron when it is set off by a "trigger", changing the neuron's charge from negative to positive.
the space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages. This bridges the gap.
chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite (and sometimes the cell body) of a receiver neuron. The terminal button releases this when a nerve impulse come to the end of the axon.
a chemical message that makes it more likely that a receiving neuron will fire and an action potential will travel down its axon.
A chemical message that prevents or decreases the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire
the reabsorption of neurotransmitters by a terminal button. Like a vacuum cleaner it sucks up the neurotransmitters clogging the synapse.
central nervous system
The part of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord.
a bundle of nerves that leaves the brain and runs down the length of the back and is the main means for transmitting messages between the brain and the body. It also controls simple kinds of behaviors such as reflexes.
automatic, involuntary responses to incoming stimuli.
Motor (efferent) neurons
neurons that communicate information from the nervous system to muscles and glands of the body. Involved in reflexes.
Sensory (efferent) neurons
neurons that transmit information from the perimeter of the body to the central nervous system. Neuron involved in reflexes.
neurons that connect sensory and motor neurons, carrying messages between the two.
peripheral nervous system
the part of the nervous system that includes the autonomic and somatic subdivisions; made up of long axons and dendrites, it branches out from the spinal cord and brain and reaches the extremities of the body. It encompasses all the parts of the nervous system other than the brain and spinal cord.
the part of the peripheral nervous system that specializes in the control of voluntary movements and the communication of information to and from the sense organs.
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary movement (the actions of the heart, glands, lungs, and other organs).
the part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to prepare the body in stressful emergency situations, engaging all the organism's resources to respond to a threat.
the part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to calm the body after an emergency situation has been resolved.
the branch of psychology that seeks to identify behavior patterns that are a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors. The course of evolution is reflected in the structure and functioning of the nervous system.
the study of the effects of heredity on behavior
a chemical communication network that sends messages throughout the body via the bloodstream. It secretes hormones, and influences the nervous system, and is intimately tied to the hypothalamus
chemicals that circulate through the blood and affect the functioning or growth of other parts of the body.
the "master gland" the major component of the endocrine system, which secretes hormones that control growth.
the "old brain", which controls basic functions such as eating and sleeping and is common to all vertebrates.
the part of the brain that controls bodily balance. Found above the medulla and behind the pons. Without this we would be unable to walk in a straight line. it constantly monitors feedback from the muscles to coordinate their placement, movement, and tension.
the part of the brain from the medulla through the pons made up of groups of nerve cells that can immediately activate other parts of the brain to produce general bodily arousal. Passes through the middle of the brain. U=it filters out background noise when we are sleeping, and can prompt an awareness if we hear a loud noise.
The part of the brain located in the middle of the central core that acts primarily as a busy relay station, mostly for information concerning the senses. Messages from yhr eyes, ears, and skin travel to it to be communicated upward to higher parts of the brain.
a tiny part of the brain, located below the thalamus, that maintains homeostasis and produces and regulates vital, basic behavior such as eating, drinking, and sexual behavior. It is below the thalamus and is tiny. Helps provide a constant body temp and monitors the amount of nutrients stores in the cells.
the part of the brain located outside the "new brain" that controls eating, aggression, and reproduction. This borders the central core and has connections with the cerebral cortex. Controls basic functions like emotions, self preservations, eating, aggression, and reproduction. Injury here can cause major changes in behavior.
the "new brain", responsible for the most sophisticated information processing in the brain; contains the lobes. Consists of a mass of deeply folded, rippled, tissue. It has four major sections called lobes. Allows us the ability to think, evaluate, and make complex judgements.
the four major sections of the cerebral cortex, frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. These four sets are physically separated by deep grooves called sulci.
the part of the cortex that is largely responsible for the body's voluntary movement.
the site in the brain of the tissue that corresponds to each of the senses, with the degree of sensitivity relating to the amount of tissue. It includes 3 regions: relating to sight, relating to bodily sensations, and relating to sound.
one of the major areas of the cerebral cortex; the site of the higher mental processes, such as thought, language, memory and speech. Damages to these areas can result in unusual behavioral changes.
changes in the brain that occur throughout the life span relating to the addiction of new neurons, more interconnections between neurons, and reorganization of information-processing areas.
two symmetrical left and right halves of the brain that control the side of the body opposite to their location. The left generally controls more verbal competence like speaking reading thinking and reasoning. the right side focuses on spatial relationships, recognition of patters and drawings, music, and emotional expression.
the dominance of one hemisphere of the brain in specific functions
a patient in whom the corpus callosum has been surgically cut and in whom the two halves of the brain function independently so that the two sides of the body work in disharmony. Usually to stop seizures.
a procedure in which a person learns to control through conscious thought internal physiological processes such as blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, skin temperature, sweating, and the constriction of particular muscles.
records electrical activity in the brain through electrodes placed on the outside of the skull. Used to diagnose epilepsy and learning disabilities.
uses a computer to construct an image of the structures of the brain by combining thousands of separate X rays taken at slightly different angles. Useful for showing abnormalities in the structure of the brain, like swelling and enlargements of certain parts, does not produce information about brain activity.
Shows biochemical activity within the brain at a given moment. They begin with the injection of a radioactive liquid in the bloodstream, which makes way to the brain. A computer can locate which are more radioactive regions.
most common neurotransmitter found throughout the nervous system. Involved in out every move because it transmits messages relating to our skeletal muscles. Diminished production of this may be related to Alzheimer's disease. It's functions are muscle movement and cognitive functioning. Located in the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system, organs in parasympathetic nervous system.
common excitatory neurotransmitter that plays a role in memory. Located in the brain and spinal cord.
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)
Located in the Brain and spinal cord.. Main inhibitory neurotransmitter. Its function is eating, aggression, and sleeping.
Located in the brain. Inhibitory or excitatory. Main function is muscle disorders, mental disorders, Parkinson's disease.Certain drugs can have a serious effect on this.
Located in the brain and spinal cord. Inhibitory. Function is sleeping, eating, mood, pain, and depression
Located in brain and spinal cord. Primarily inhibitory, except in hippocampus. Pain suppression, pleasurable feelings, appetites, placebos.
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