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What is a serous membrane and what is it's function?

A thin layer of CT that lines body cavities and organs.

What is the difference between the terms visceral and parietal?

Parietal = what cavities are lined with

Visceral = what organs are lined with

Name the serous membrane which pertains to the lungs, heart and abdominal cavity.

Lungs = pleura

Heart = pericardium

Abdominal = peritoneum

What is a mesentery? Name the mesenteries in the abdominal cavity and state the function of each.

A connective tissue sheet

Greater Omentum
-capable of storing large amounts of fat
-limits spread of peritoneal infection

Lesser Omentum
-between stomach duodenum and liver

Mesentery of small intestine
-support for small intestine
-contains blood, nerve, and lymphatic supply for small intestine

Where does gas exchange occur on the respiratory tract?


What are the two divisions of the respiratory tract? Name the structures in each.

Conducting division
-Nostrils through the bronchioles

Respiratory division
-alveoli and other distal gas exchange regions

What is the primary function of each portion of the upper respiratory tract?

-warms, cleanses, and humidifies inhaled air;detects odor in the airstream; and amplifies voice

-consists of nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx

-Voice box and keep food and drink out of the airway

What is the primary function of each portion of the lower respiratory tract?

Organs from trachea to lungs

Name the structures of the external nose. What types of tissue is each?

External nose
-Nasal bones
-Bridge - bone
-Dorsum nasi - cartilage
-Apex - cartilage
-Ala nasi - dense CT
-Naris (nares)

What is the name of the structure just inside the external nares?

nasal conchae?

The nasal cavity is divided into two fossae by what structure?

Nasal Septum

Name the structures and spaces on the lateral surface of the nasal fossae. What is their function?

The conchae
-moistens and warms air coming in and clears some debris

Name the paranasal sinuses. Into which structure do they drain?

Maxillary, ethmoidal, sphenoidal, and frontal

-Drain to different parts of the nasal cavity

What is the name of the opening from the nasal cavity to the nasopharynx?


What is the location and function of the auditory tube?


It conducts air and maintains air pressure

What are the structures and functions of the larynx?

Cartilaginous chamber
-4 cm long
-Framework is 9 cartilages
-Tip of epiglottis to esophagus

Primary function
-Keep food out of airway
Function of epiglottis

Secondary function

What is the name of the structure that covers a glottis, protecting the larynx from fluid when swallowing?


What is the term for opening of the vocal cords? Closing? To which to laryngeal cartilages to the vocal cords attach?

Opening = Abduction
Closing = Adduction

Thyroid and arytenoid cartilages

What is the vestibular fold?

One of two thick folds of mucous membrane, each enclosing a narrow band of fibrous tissue

Rings of what type of tissue hold the trachea open?

hyaline cartilage

Describe the gross anatomy of the lobes and fissures of the lung.

R superior
R middle
R inferior

L superior
L inferior

Horizontal (right)

What is the function of respiratory epithelium? Respiratory epithelium is what type of tissue? Describe the mucocilliary escalator effect.

Traps inhaled particles

-Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

-cilia brings debris up

How do bronchioles affect airflow to the alveoli? Asthma occurs in which structure?

Smooth muscle


What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 alveolar cells? What's the function of each? What's the function of alveolar macrophages?

Squamous (type I) alveolar cells
-95% of surface area
-gas exchange area
Great (type II) alveolar cells
-5% of surface area
-Produce surfactant
-Repair alveolar epithelium

Alveolar macrophages (dust cells)

Explain gas exchange between and alveoli and a capillary.

Oxygen from the alveoli goes into the capillary and CO2 from the capillary goes into the alveoli

What is surfactant? What is it's function?

Thing on surface of alveoli to reduce surface tension

How does breathing occur? What is the effect of the diaphragm on breathing? What nerve innervates the diaphragm?

-Primary mover of pulmonary ventilation
-Enlarges thoracic cavity
Internal/external intercostal muscles

Phrenic nerve

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