Anatomy exam 3 Mesentery and Respiratory
What is a serous membrane and what is it's function?
A thin layer of CT that lines body cavities and organs.
What is the difference between the terms visceral and parietal?
Parietal = what cavities are lined with
Visceral = what organs are lined with
Name the serous membrane which pertains to the lungs, heart and abdominal cavity.
Lungs = pleura
Heart = pericardium
Abdominal = peritoneum
What is a mesentery? Name the mesenteries in the abdominal cavity and state the function of each.
A connective tissue sheet
-capable of storing large amounts of fat
-limits spread of peritoneal infection
-between stomach duodenum and liver
Mesentery of small intestine
-support for small intestine
-contains blood, nerve, and lymphatic supply for small intestine
Where does gas exchange occur on the respiratory tract?
What are the two divisions of the respiratory tract? Name the structures in each.
-Nostrils through the bronchioles
-alveoli and other distal gas exchange regions
What is the primary function of each portion of the upper respiratory tract?
-warms, cleanses, and humidifies inhaled air;detects odor in the airstream; and amplifies voice
-consists of nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
-Voice box and keep food and drink out of the airway
What is the primary function of each portion of the lower respiratory tract?
Organs from trachea to lungs
Name the structures of the external nose. What types of tissue is each?
-Bridge - bone
-Dorsum nasi - cartilage
-Apex - cartilage
-Ala nasi - dense CT
What is the name of the structure just inside the external nares?
The nasal cavity is divided into two fossae by what structure?
Name the structures and spaces on the lateral surface of the nasal fossae. What is their function?
-moistens and warms air coming in and clears some debris
Name the paranasal sinuses. Into which structure do they drain?
Maxillary, ethmoidal, sphenoidal, and frontal
-Drain to different parts of the nasal cavity
What is the name of the opening from the nasal cavity to the nasopharynx?
What is the location and function of the auditory tube?
It conducts air and maintains air pressure
What are the structures and functions of the larynx?
-4 cm long
-Framework is 9 cartilages
-Tip of epiglottis to esophagus
-Keep food out of airway
Function of epiglottis
What is the name of the structure that covers a glottis, protecting the larynx from fluid when swallowing?
What is the term for opening of the vocal cords? Closing? To which to laryngeal cartilages to the vocal cords attach?
Opening = Abduction
Closing = Adduction
Thyroid and arytenoid cartilages
What is the vestibular fold?
One of two thick folds of mucous membrane, each enclosing a narrow band of fibrous tissue
Rings of what type of tissue hold the trachea open?
Describe the gross anatomy of the lobes and fissures of the lung.
What is the function of respiratory epithelium? Respiratory epithelium is what type of tissue? Describe the mucocilliary escalator effect.
Traps inhaled particles
-Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
-cilia brings debris up
How do bronchioles affect airflow to the alveoli? Asthma occurs in which structure?
What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 alveolar cells? What's the function of each? What's the function of alveolar macrophages?
Squamous (type I) alveolar cells
-95% of surface area
-gas exchange area
Great (type II) alveolar cells
-5% of surface area
-Repair alveolar epithelium
Alveolar macrophages (dust cells)
Explain gas exchange between and alveoli and a capillary.
Oxygen from the alveoli goes into the capillary and CO2 from the capillary goes into the alveoli
What is surfactant? What is it's function?
Thing on surface of alveoli to reduce surface tension
How does breathing occur? What is the effect of the diaphragm on breathing? What nerve innervates the diaphragm?
-Primary mover of pulmonary ventilation
-Enlarges thoracic cavity
Internal/external intercostal muscles