Resource domains or areas that lie outside the political reach of any one nation state.
The 4 commons under International law
1.The High Seas 2.The Atmosphere 3.Outer space 4.Antarctica
Emerging as a new global common as it is a resource shared by everyone but not controlled by a single nation.
Principle of common heritage
States some localities belong to all mankind and the resources available are for everyone's benefit and use. Takes into account the needs of developing countries and future generations.
Advances in science and technology
Give easier access to a wider range of resources, puts the commons at threat
Pressure on global commons
This is due to greater scarcity of resources especially minerals, food and fuel putting pressure on the commons to provide resources for the needy and developing world.
The tragedy of the commons
Explains why shared 'common access resources' are likely to be overexploited. This happens when individuals act according to themselves and not for the wider good of everyone therefore depleting resources.
Tragedy of the commons example
Global scale when fish stocks were depleted due to overfishing, marine pollution and loss of sustainability.
Covered by UN Convention On the Law of the Sea(UNCLOS), entered into force 14th November 1994 and defines the rights and responsibilities of nations and their use of the world's oceans, the environment, and marine natural resources.
Protected by UN Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC), The Montreal protocol is about the substances that deplete the ozone layer and the Kyoto protocol and now Paris Protocol (2015) sets the limits on carbon emissions that are allowed into the atmosphere.
Controlled by Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), the main international governance on Antarctica. Lead to the creation of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty which guaranteed research rights and free access to work together for the common cause.
Governed by 1979 Moon Treaty, this governs exploration and exploitation of the resources in outer space. Also the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration of Outer Space.