175 terms

Geography Final Exam Review 2018

STUDY
PLAY
What do all maps contain and why?
Certain tools to interpret the information on that specific map
Why is it important to know the tools of maps and how to use them effectively?
In order to use all maps more effectively
What is a compass rose?
Marker that indicates direction
What are the directions N, S, W, E known as?
Cardinal directions
What are the directions NW, SW, NE, SE known as?
Intermediate directions
What saying helps one remember how to draw a compass rose correctly?
Weeee and not Ewwww
Which way should North point and why?
Away from you, toward the top of your desk in order to orient your map correctly for use
What is a key?
a list that explains what the symbols on a map stand for
How is each key different?
Specific to each map
What is a scale bar?
Shows the relationship between map measurements and actual distance
What is the purpose of a scale bar?
Shows how far it is from one place to another
What is a physical map according to your notes?
Shows the location and topography of the earth's physical features
What types of features are found on a physical map according to the definition in the notes?
mountains, deserts, and bodies of water
What is a political map according to your notes?
Shows the boundaries between countries and smaller internal divisions such as states or counties
What is the very simple definition of what can be found on a physical map?
things you can touch
What types of features are found on a political map according to your notes?
Features borders of states, counties, capitals, and cities
What is a very simple definition of what can be found on a political map?
things that are there because the government says they are
What are the 2 ways that location is described in geography?
Relative and Absolute
What is the definition of relative location?
describes how a place is related to its surrounding environment
What does one have to know to find relative location?
can only be found if one is familiar with the specific characteristics of a place
What is the definition of absolute location?
the exact place on earth where a geographic feature is found
How is absolute location described?
described using a grid of lines on the earth's surface; latitude and longitude
What is the definition of hemisphere?
division of the earth into 2 equal halves
What is the definition of equator?
divides the N&S halves of the earth
What is the definition of prime meridian?
divides the E&W halves of the earth
What are latitude lines and what do they measure?
Set of imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator; measure distances north or south of the equator
What is the rhyme that reminds you how latitude lines run?
Lat rhymes with flat - Latitude lines run horizontally or flat
What are longitude lines and what do they measure?
Honors only: How are degrees broken up more precisely?
Set of imaginary lines that run around the earth over the poles; measure distances east or west starting at the Prime Meridian
Honors only: Each degree of latitude and longitude is subdivided into 60 minutes and 60 seconds for more precise readings
What caused the need for time zones?
introduction of railroads
How many times zones are there and why?
24 time zones each 1,000 miles across at the equator
Where do times zones begin and end?
Honors only: How does this line work?
begin at the Prime Meridian and end at the International Date Line
Honors only: gain one day when crossing to the east, lose one day when crossing to the west
What happens when you cross time zones to the east? Why?
+1 hour because the sun rises in the east
What happen when you cross time zones to the west? Why?
-1 hour because the sun sets in the west
How many time zones does the US have and what are they?
the US has 4 times zones; Eastern (farthest east), Central, Mountain, Pacific (farthest west)
What are continents?
landmass above water on earth
What was Francis Bacon's theory?
that the 7 continents were once one continent
What was the 1st proof that was found of a super continent?
rocks in Africa matching rocks in South America
What was Alfred Wegener's theory?
earth was once super continent of Pangaea
What is continental drift?
theory that 7 continents were once super continent of Pangaea
What is Pangaea?
Honors only: Greek word for?
super continent of the earth
Honors only: all earth
What # of planets in solar system?
Honors only: How far is the earth from the sun?
8 planets
Honors only: 93 million miles
What are the 7 current continent names?
North American, South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica, Europe
Structure of the earth resembles?
a peanut M&M
What are tectonic plates ?
massive, moving pieces of the earth's lithosphere
What does plate movement cause?
the earth to be continually reshaped through earthquakes and volcanoes
What 4 ways do plates move?
spreading apart, subducting (diving) under, sliding past each other, collision
What are 2 examples of plate movement affecting the surface of the earth?
widening of the Red Sea, building up Himalayas, San Andreas Fault in CA
What is a fault and what causes it?
fracture in the earth's surface caused when plates fold or bend
What is an earthquake?
violent movement of the earth when plates grind or slip at a fault line
How are earthquakes measured?
seismograph detects and measures waves they create
What percent of earthquakes occur at the plate boundaries?
95% of earthquakes occur at tectonic plate boundaries
What can occur for days after an earthquake?
aftershocks
What scale is used to measure earthquakes?
Honors only: Where did the largest earthquake ever occur and in what year?
the Richter scale
Honors only: 9.0 Japan in 2011
What is a tsunami?
large wave caused by an earthquake under the ocean
How fast can a tsunami travel?
500 mph
What is a volcano?
when underground materials pour from a crack in the earth's surface
Where do the majority of the earth's volcanoes occur (specific name)?
the Ring of Fire
What are "hotspots"?
where magma rises to the surface
What are seasons related to?
the earth's tilt and revolution
How is the earth tilted?
23.5° angle relative to the sun
What causes seasons?
direct rays of sun hitting locations at different times of year
How is the earth tilted during summer?winter?
summer = earth tilted toward sun
winter = earth tilted away from sun
What season is each hemisphere experiencing simultaneously?
Honors only: What does this mean about Christmas in Australia?
N hemisphere summer = S hemisphere winter
S hemisphere summer = N hemisphere winter
Honors only: its happens during summertime!
What is the solstice?
sun's rays are directly overhead at noon at furthest latitudes
What date does the summer solstice occur and what is occurring then?
June 21st, longest day of the year, beginning of summer, when sun is directly over Tropic of Cancer
What date does the winter solstice occur and what is occurring then?
Dec. 22nd, shortest day of year, beginning of winter, when sun directly over Tropic of Capricorn
What is the equinox?
when day and night are equal length and northern and southern hemispheres receive equal amounts of light
What date is the spring equinox and what is occurring then?
March 21st beginning of spring when day and night are equal length
What date is the fall equinox and what is occurring then?
Sept. 23rd beginning of fall when day and night are equal length
What Is happening to the amount of daylight from the spring equinox and then the fall eqinox?
sunlight increases from spring equinox and decreases from fall equinox
What is the midnight sun and what causes it?
period of continuous daylight or continuous night north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle
What is the difference between weather and climate?
weather is atmospheric conditions at particular location and time; climate is weather conditions at 1 location over long period
IGNORE: What conditions cause weather?IGNORE
IGNORE: water vapor, cloud cover, landforms & bodies of water, elevation, air movement IGNORE
What are tornadoes?
powerful, funnel-shaped column of spiraling air
What causes tornadoes?
swirl counterclockwise around low pressure, born from strong thunderstorms
How are tornadoes rated?
F0-F5
What % of tornadoes fall where on this scale?
80% F0-F1
How many tornadoes does the US average?
700 per year
What is Tornado Alley and what causes it?
flat area between Texas and Nebraska; cold, dry air down from Canada, warm moist air up from Gulf of Mexico
What are hurricanes?
Honors only: What and where are typhoons and cyclones?
storms that form over tropical ocean waters
Honors only: typhoons in Asia, cyclones in Southern Hemisphere/Indian Ocean
Where do hurricanes form?
form over tropical ocean waters
What are the categories of hurricanes?
Tropical Storm - to 74 mph\nCategories 1-5
What is a blizzard?
heavy snowstorm with strong winds, reduced visibility
What is a flood?
water spreads over normally dry land
What is a drought?
long period of time with either no or minimal rainfall
What are seasons related to?
the earth's tilt and revolution
How is the earth tilted?
23.5° angle relative to the sun
What causes seasons?
direct rays of sun hitting locations at different times of year
How is the earth tilted during summer? winter?
summer = earth tilted toward sun
winter = earth tilted away from sun
What season is each hemisphere experiencing simultaneously?
Honors only: What does this mean about Christmas in Australia?
N hemisphere summer = S hemisphere winter
S hemisphere summer = N hemisphere winter
Honors only: its happens during summertime!
What is the solstice?
sun's rays are directly overhead at noon at furthest latitudes
What date does the summer solstice occur and what is occurring then?
June 21st, longest day of the year, beginning of summer, when sun is directly over Tropic of Cancer
What date does the winter solstice occur and what is occurring then?
Dec. 22nd, shortest day of year, beginning of winter, when sun directly over Tropic of Capricorn
What is the equinox?
when day and night are equal length and northern and southern hemispheres receive equal amounts of light
What date is the spring equinox and what is occurring then?
March 21st beginning of spring when day and night are equal length
What date is the fall equinox and what is occurring then?
Sept. 23rd beginning of fall when day and night are equal length
What Is happening to the amount of daylight from the spring equinox and then the fall eqinox?
sunlight increases from spring equinox and decreases from fall equinox
What is the midnight sun and what causes it?
Honors only: What does the midnight sun cause in Antarctica and the Arctic?
period of continuous daylight or continuous night north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle; half year of sunlight or darkness
What does monotheistic mean?
believing in one deity (god)
What does polytheistic mean?
believing in more than one deity (god)
What is the definition of religion?
An organized system of beliefs, ceremonies, practices, and worship that centers on one or more gods
What 3 essential questions are religions trying to answer?
1.) How was the universe created/How did we get here?
2.) How to live a good life/What is our purpose in life?
3.) What happens when we die?
What are the 5 major religions of the world that were studied in class?
Christian, Jewish, Islam, Hindu, Buddist
What religion has the largest % of followers in the world?
Christian
What religion has the 2nd largest % of followers in the world?
Islam
What religion has the largest % of followers in India?
Hindu
What religion has the largest % of followers in the Middle East?
Islam
What religion has the largest % of followers in Asia?
Buddhist
What religion studied in class has the smallest % of followers?
Jewish
Why is the % for Judaism so small?
because one must be born Jewish
Who was the founder of Judaism?
Abraham
What covenant was made to create the Jewish people and between whom?
between Abraham and Yahweh; that Abraham would obey Yahweh and Yahweh would make Abraham the father of the Jewish people
What is the deity of Judaism?
Yahweh
How does one usually become Jewish?
born that way
What event was the spread of the Jews out from the Holy Land?
Diaspora
What event resulted in the killing of 6 million Jews?
the Holocaust
What and where is Israel?
country of the Jews located in the Middle East next to Palestine
Why is Jerusalem important to the Jews?
they see it as the capital of Israel and it contains the only remainder of Jewish temple
What is ethical monotheism?
right behavior and the worship of one God
What 3 religions share the belief in ethical monotheism?
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
What is kosher and what does it entail?
ritual cleanliness; No pork, meat w/ dairy, crab, lobster
What is a yarmulke and why is it worn?
Jewish skullcap; worn to show humility before Yahweh
What are the holidays of Judaism?
Bar/Bat Mitzvah, Passover, Hanukkah, Rosh Hashanah
What does the Bar/Bat Mitzvah symbolize?
the Jewish entrance into adulthood
What is the Jewish leadership called?
rabbi
What is the Jewish holy day?
the Sabbath (Saturday)
What is the Jewish place of worship?
synagogue
What is the holy book of Judaism?
Torah
Who was the founder of Christianity?
Jesus
Who were the students of Jesus?
the apostles/disciples
What is the deity of Christianity?
God
What do the Christians and Jews believe about Jesus?
Christianity = Jesus was the Messiah; \nJews = Jesus was a nice Jewish guy
Why and how was Jesus executed?
enemies thought he might cause people to revolt against Rome; crucifixion
What Greek word does Christianity come from?
Cristos
What is the holy book of Christianity?
Bible
What is Allah the Arabic word for?
God
How do the Arabs trace their ancestry to Abraham?
through his son Ishmael
Who is the founder of Islam?
Muhammad
What is significant about Mecca?
it is the Holy City of Islam because Muhammad was born there and founded Islam there
What 3 things did Gabriel tell Muhammad?
Allah is the one true God
He (Muhammad) is the messenger of Allah
Allah had revealed parts of His message to Moses (Judaism) and Jesus (Christian)
What does Islam mean and what does Muslim mean?
Islam means "submission to the will of Allah"
Muslim means "one who has submitted
What is the deity of Islam?
Allah
What are the 5 Pillars of Islam?
Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, Pilgrimage
What is the holy book of Islam?
Qur'an
What is halal and what does it entail?
like Jewish kosher; may not gamble, eat pork, drink alcohol, or be dishonest
When and how do Muslims pray?
must face towards Mecca and pray 5 times daily
What is the Muslim holy land?
Mecca
What does Islam believe about Judaism and Christianity?
it shares a common background with Judaism and Christianity
Where do Muslims worship?
a mosque
What is the Muslim holy day?
Juma (Friday)
Who is a leader of Islam?
imam
What is the hijab and who is it associated with?
female head covering; tradition passed down from Mary (mother of Jesus)
What is the Muslim religion based on rather than violence?
peace; to take one life is to take all of humanity
What is Ramadan?
the Muslim holy month of fasting
How old is Hinduism?
one of the world's oldest religions; believers believe it has always existed
Where did Hinduism originate?
in India
What is the holy book of Hinduism?
Vedas
What is the atman and what do Hindus believe about all life?
soul that is shared by all life and makes it sacred
What do the Hindus believe about reincarnation and how is it different from Buddhism?
Hindus believe one can only move up one step from this life, Buddhists believe one can achieve Nirvana from any life
What is karma?
force generated by a person's actions, determines rebirth
What are the 3 chief gods of Hinduism?
Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, Shiva the Destroyer
All the gods of Hinduism are a form of what chief god?
Brahman
Who are the leaders of Hinduism?
gurus
What are 3 important symbols or things that are considered sacred by Hindus?
bindi, cows, aum
Where and when was Buddhism founded?
500BC in India
Who was the founder of Buddhism and why was it founded?
Siddhartha Gautama sought a cure for human suffering through enlightenment
What must one let go of, according to Buddhism, to find enlightenment?
the physical world
What must one follow to let go according to Buddhism?
the Eightfold Path
What is the holy book of Buddhism?
the Jatakas
Who is the leader of Buddhism?
the Dalai Lama
What does Buddhism believe about gods?
less emphasis on worshipping gods and more on individual development, following Buddha's example
What does Buddhism believe about reincarnation and how is it different from Hinduism?
Buddhism believes one can reach Nirvana from any life, Hinduism believes one can only go up one step
What must one follow to achieve enlightenment according to Buddhism?
Eightfold Path
Why can Buddhism be seen as a philosophy instead of a religion?
less emphasis on worshipping gods and more on individual development; without the worship of gods, it could simply be a philosophy
What class does Buddhism appeal to?
poorer and lower classes