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Terms in this set (12)
Greek word for "love of wisdom"/Philosophy led to the study of history, political science, science, and mathematics.
Greek thinkers, who believed the human mind, could understand everything/Many philosophers became teachers.
They were professional teachers in ancient Greece. They made a living teaching. They taught students how to win arguments, and make good political speeches
is a method from the philosopher, Socrates, who believed in absolute truths. The Socratic Method is used to force students to use their reason and to see things for themselves.
Pythagoras- Greek philosopher
Taught that the universe follows the same laws that governed music and numbers/He came up with the Pythagorean theorem that is still used in geometry.
Socrates- Greek philosopher
He developed the Socratic Method and died for his beliefs in democracy. He died because some of the leaders in Athens considered his teachings a threat to their power. He was teaching his pupils/students how to think using reason and not to believe everything they were told was true.
He hated democracy because it killed his teacher, who he had studied with for many years. He wrote a book called the Republic. The form of government he believed in would have three groups of people in charge:
1st at the top ruling would be the philosopher kings using reason, logic, and wisdom, 2nd would be the warriors to protect the state from attack, and the 3rd group would be everyone else, who would be driven by desire not wisdom. The third group would produce clothing, food, and shelter.
Plato also believed both men and women should have equal education and equal jobs.
Plato established a school in Athens called the Academy in 388B.C.
4) Aristotle-Greek philosopher- Aristotle was Plato's best student and had enrolled at the Academy school in 367B.C., and stayed there for 20 years. Aristotle wrote over 200 books on topics such as government, planets and stars. Some believe he is the father of modern science.
In 335B.C. he opened his own school called the Lyceum. At his school he taught the "Golden Mean", which is an idea that no person should do things in excess. (Moderation in all things: such as don't eat too much candy, or don't sit in front of the computer too long.)
He is the first person to group observations in the field of science according to their similarities and differences. His studies about history led him to write the book "Politics", where he puts governments into three types or categories:
1: Monarchy- rule by a tyrant-king or queen
2: Oligarchy-rule by a few, which might be an aristocracy or nobility or upper class people
3: Democracy- rule by many people
Greek historian known as the Father of Western History- In 435B.C. he wrote the History of the Persian Wars. He tried to separate fact from fiction. His history includes errors and gods and goddesses to explain some events he is still considered the Father of Western History.
Greek historian known as the greatest historian of the ancient world.
Thucydides fought in the Peloponnesian War and lost a battle. He was sent into exile and there he wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War. He did something different from Herodotus in his writing style. He did not see war and politics as the activities of the gods but of human beings. He also stressed the importance of having accurate facts.
Greek thinkers and historians have produced works that shape peoples' views of the world today. The Sophists influence us today as can be seen through the importance of public speaking in political debates between candidates.
Socrates' Socratic Method is used by teachers with their students. Plato introduced the idea that government should be fair and just. Aristotle's political idea that the rich and the poor should run the government was adopted by our founding fathers when the United States Constitution was written.
Historians today follow the methods of Thucydides focusing on getting the facts accurate.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Philosophy Introduction Unit
Classical Greek Philosophy:
PHIL 101- TEST 1: "Pre-Socratic" philosopher
philosophy, pythagoras, herdoutus, and thucydides
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