22 terms

Antarctica Timeline

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1800
Fur seals of South Georgia wiped out
1904
Norwegians establish Grytviken on South Georgia for whaling
1911
Amundson and Scott race to the Pole
1946
International Whaling Commission established
1958
First tourism boat arrives in Antarctica
1958 SCAR
Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research founded. Charged with initiating, developing and coordinating high quality international scientific research in the Antarctic region (including the Southern Ocean), and on the role of the Antarctic region in the Earth system.
1959
The Antarctic Treaty, signed put an end to many claims of sovereignty and set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve where military activity was banned.
1961
AT comes into force
1965
Grytviken abandoned as whale stocks severely depleted and whaling no longer commercially viable
1972
Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals
1978
Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition of NGOs created - supports the creation of marine protected areas and marine reserves to ensure that these species and the habitats they depend on are fully protected
Late 1970s/early 80s
Some members of AT secretly try to formulate a new mineral convention
1982
Decision to pause whaling on all stocks from 1985/86 season onwards
1982 CCAMLR
Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) comes into force
Mid 1980s
Peak of fish stocks landed, collapse followed 1990's collapse of USSR
1988
Mineral Convention adopted BUT never came into force as it was not ratified by members
1989
CCAMLR set up the Ecosystem Monitoring Program (CEMP) to further monitor the effects of fishing and harvesting of species in the area.
1991
IAATO founded to advocate and promote the practice of safe and environmentally responsible private-sector travel to the Antarctic.
1994
IWC establishes Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary
1998
The Madrid Protocol - banned all mining activities in Antarctica. (Protocol on Environmental Protection)
2016
Ross Sea Marine Park was finally declared by the CCAMLR
2048
Review of Antarctic Treaty - deposits of gold, iron ore, coal and oil have been discovered, although they are currently uneconomic to mine.