28 terms

Patterns of urbanisation

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Urbanisation
The process by which an increasing proportion of a countries population live in towns and cities.
Urban
Located in or characteristic of a city or city life
2010
The World's urban population passed 50% for the first time in history
World Health Organisation of the UN
Estimate that "By 2030, 6 out of every 10 people will live in a city, and by 2050, this proportion will increase to 7 out of 10 people."
World city
Dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. Not the world's biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy.
Megacity
Urban area over 10 million people, often an agglomeration of one or more urban centres
Metacity
Urban area over 20 million people, often an agglomeration of one or more urban centres
Urban Growth
An increase in the number of urban dwellers, caused by natural increase or rural to urban migration
Push factor
Such as unemployment or the lack of freedom of speech, that makes people want to leave their area and move to a city
Pull factor
Such as freedom or employment opportunities that attract a person to a city
Natural increase
Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths; does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements
Young age profiles
Cities tend to have many people between the ages of 15 to 40, which boosts birth rates in these areas and causes cities to grow naturally
Conurbation
A continuous, extended urban area formed by the growing together of several formerly separate, expanding cities
Metropolitan area
Region that includes a central city and its surrounding suburbs e.g. Greater London
Rural to urban migration
The dominant migration flow from countryside to city that continues to transform the world's population from rural to urban
746 million
number of people in urban areas in1950 according to the United Nations
2.5 billion
The number of people the UN expect to be added to urban populations between 2014 and 2050, most of those being in Asian and Africa
Most urbanised regions
Include North America, Europe, the Caribbean and South America
Least urban regions
Include parts of Africa and Asia
China, Nigeria and India
Are expected to account for 37% of the projected growth of the world's urban population
Rates of urbanisation are changing
Many LDCs, LICs & NICs have very rapid rates of urban growth, whilst richer HICs slow growth (e.g. Toulouse in France and even have cities in decline (e.g. Middlesbrough)
Deindustrialisation
The loss of manufacturing industries in many HICs has led to urban decline
10
Number of megacities in 1990
28
Number of megacities in 2014
41
Expected number of megacities in 2030 according to UN estimates
38 million
The number of people in the largest megacity, Tokyo
Asia
The location of the majority of the world's megacities
In cities in the UK
Industrialisation went hand in hand with urbanisation
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