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Government 2306 Exam 1
Chapter 1-3, 13
Terms in this set (98)
a public institution with authority to formulate adopt, implement, and enforce public policies for a society
government action designed to meet a public need or goal as determined by a legislation body or other authorized officials
the process of policymaking that involves conflict and cooperation between political parties and other groups that seek to elect government officials or to influence those officials when they make public policy, such as enacting and interpreting laws
attitudes, habits, and general behavior patterns that develop over time and affect the political life of a state or region
the culture influences people to view political participation as their duty and to expect that the government will be used to advance the public good
this culture looks to government to maintain a stable society but with minimum intervention in the lives of the people
a product of the Old South, this culture uses government as a means of preserving the status quo and its leadership
Jim Crow laws
ethnically discriminating laws that segregated African Americans and denied them access to public services for many decades after the Civil War
a type of boss rule that has dominated areas of South Texas and Mexico
the power of the government to take private property for public uses, so long as just compensation is paid
a discriminatory rating system used by federal agencies to evaluate the risks associated with loans made to borrowers in specific urban neighborhoods
the relocation of businesses and people, the demolition of structures, and the use of eminent domain to take private property for government development projects
the use of local government zoning ordinances to exclude certain groups of people from a given community
agreements by a group of property owners, subdivision developers, or real estate operators in a given neighborhood, binding them not to sell, lease, or rent property to specified groups because of race, creed, or color for a definite period unless all agree to the transaction
the development of a residential pattern centered in a core area containing a large population nucleus together with adjacent communities economically and socially integrated with that core
the tenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution declares that "the powers not delegated by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the states, respectively, or to the people."
national supremacy clause
Article VI of the U.S. Constitution emphasizes that the U.S. Constitution and acts of Congress must prevail over state constitutions and laws enacted by state legislatures.
Specific powers entrusted to the national government by Article 1, Section 8, of the U.S. Constitution (e.g. regulate interstate commerce, borrow money, and declare war)
Powers inferred by the constitutional authority of the U.S. Congress "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing [delegated] powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof."
privileges and the immunities
Article IV of the U.S. Constitution guarantees that "citizens of each state shall be entitled to the privileges and immunities of citizens of the several states." According to the U.S. Supreme Court, this provision means that citizens are guaranteed protection by government,enjoyment of life and liberty, the right to acquire and posses property, the right to leave and enter any state, and the right to use state courts.
are derived from the Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. Although not spelled out in the U.S. Constitution, these powers to the states include police power, taxing power, propriety, and power of eminent domain.
Money appropriated by the U.S. Congress to help states and local governments provide needed facilities and services
congressional grant of money that allows the state considerable flexibility in spending for a program, such as providing welfare services.
a farmers' organization also known as the Patrons' of Husbandry, committed to low levels of government spending and limited governmental powers; a major influence on the Constitution of 1876
Constitutional amendment process
process for changing the Texas Constitution in which an amendment is proposed by two-thirds vote of each chamber of the legislature and approved by a simple majority of voters in a general or special election.
extensive or complete rewriting of a constitution
Constitutional revision convention
a body of delegates who meet to make extensive changes in a constitution or to draft a new constitution.
Texas Bill of Right
Article 1 of the Texas Constitution, which guarantees protections for people and their property against arbitrary actions by states and local governments. Protected rights include freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and petition
separation of powers
the assignment of law-making, law-enforcing, and law-interpreting functions to separate branches of government
counties, municipalities, school districts, and other special districts that provide a range of services, including rural roads, city streets, public education, and protection of persons and property
A legal principle, still followed in the majority of states including Texas, that local governments have only those powers granted by their states government.
a municipality with a charter prescribed by the legislature
a municipality with a locally drafted charter
a process for removing elected officials through a
popular vote. In Texas, this power is available only for home-rule cities
strong mayor-council form
A type of municipal government with a separately elected legislative body (council) and an executive head (mayor) elected in a citywide election with veto, appointment, and removal powers
weak mayor-council form
A type of municipal government with a separately elected mayor and council, but the mayor shares appointive and removal powers with the council, which can override the mayor's veto.
A system of municipal government in which an elected city council hires a manager to coordinate budgetary matters and supervise administrative departments
a type of municipal government in which each elected commissioner is a member of the city's policy-making body, but also heads an administrative department (e.g., public safety with police and fire divisions)
an election in which candidates are not identified on the ballot by party label
members of a policy making body, such as some city councils, are elected on a citywide basis rather than from single-member districts
single-member district election
voters in an area (commonly called a district, ward, or precinct) elect one representative to serve on a policy-making body(e.g., city council, county commissioners court, state House and Senate).
redrawing of boundaries after the federal decennial census to create district with approximately equal population(e.g., legislative, congressional, commissioners court, and city council districts in Texas).
a tax that property owners pay according to the value of real estate and other tangible property. At the local level, property owners pay this tax to the city, the country, the school district, and often other special districts.
a mechanism by which governments borrow money. General obligation bonds(redeemed from general revenue) and revenue bonds (redeemed from revenue obtained from the property or activity financed by the sale of the bonds) are authorized under Texas law
Texas is divided into 254 counties that serve as an administrative arm of the state and that provide important services at the local level, especially in rural areas.
a Texas county's policy-making body, with five members: the county judge, who presides, and four commissioners representing single-member precincts
a unit of local government that performs a particular service, such as providing achools, hospitals, or housing, for a particular geographic area.
public policy that concerns taxing, government spending, public debt, and management of government money
a mandatory assessment exacted by a government for a public purpose
a tax in which the effective tax rate falls as the tax base (such as individual income or corporate profits) increases.
a tax in which the effective tax rate increases as the tax base (such as individual income or corporate profits) increases.
a charge imposed by an agency upon those subject to its regulation
a budget in which total revenues and expenditures are equal, producing no deficit
General Revenue Fund
An unrestricted state fund that is available for general appropriations
general sales tax
Texas' largest source of tax revenue, applied at the rate of 6.25% to the sale price of tangible personal property and "the storage, use, or other consumption of tangible personal property purchased, leased, or ranted."
selective sales tax
a tax charged on specific products and services
a selective sales tax on items such as cigarettes, other forms of tobacco, alcoholic beverages, and admission to sex-oriented businesses
a tax levied on the annual receipts of businesses that are organized to limit the personal liability of owners for the privilege of conducting business in the state
an employer-paid tax levied against a portion of the wages and salaries of workers to provide funds for payment of unemployment insurance benefits in the event employees lose their jobs
an excise tax levied on a natural resource when it is severed from the earth.
Money, goods, or services given by one government to another (for example, federal grants-in-aid to states for financing public assistance programs).
general obligation bond
amount borrowed by the state that is repaid from the General Revenue Fund
amount borrowed by the state that is repaid from specific revenue source
a plan of financial operation indicating how much revenue a government expects to collect during a period (usually one or two fiscal years) and how much spending is authorized for agencies and programs
Legislative Budget Board (LBB)
a 10-member body co-chaired by the lieutenant governed and the Speaker of the House. This board and its staff prepare a biennial. In addition, they assist with the preparation of a general appropriation bill at the beginning of a regular legislative session. If requested, staff members prepare fiscal notes that assess the economic impact of a proposed bill or resolution
the process whereby the governor and the Legislative Budget Board oversee (and, in some instances, modify) implementation of the spending plan authorized by the Texas legislature
What political culture(s) has/have dominated Texas?
Individualistic and traditionalistic
What is the size of Texas?
267,000 square miles
What is population of Texas?
The West Texas Plains
Agriculture is the economic bedrock of the West Texas Plains.Dominated by white Protestant fundamentalism, agriculture, and oil, West Texas is fertile soil for the Republican Party.
South and Southwest Texas border Mexico. With a large Latino population, the Democratic Party has substantial electoral success here.
Waco, Austin, and San Antonio are all in Central Texas. The region is dominated by universities and colleges, the high-tech sector, the state government, tourism, and major military bases. The Democratic Party does well in Austin, and also in San Antonio, though surrounding areas tend toward Republican conservatism.
This region is home to the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex dividing East and West Texas. Democrats sometimes find electoral success in the urban centers of the metroplex, but the suburban and rural parts of the region are conservative Republican strongholds.
Cotton production. It is firmly a part of the Republican "Solid South"
The Gulf Coast
The coast of the Gulf Mexico stretches from the Louisiana border to the Rio Grande. Houston, the state's largest and most diverse city, the area also has the highest concentrations of unions in Texas. As a results, Democrats have some electoral wins in the urban areas. Rural parts of the Gulf Coast remain reliably Republican, however.
What are six ways that are used to purposefully ensure residential segregation?
Redlining, urban renewal, exclusionary zoning, racial covenants
What are the top 4 racial categories in Texas?
1. White/Anglo 44%
2. Hispanic/Latino 38.4%
3. Black/ African American 12.4%
4. Asian 4.3%
What are the top four industries that remain important in Texas economy and culture?
Cattle, Cotton, Timber, Oil and Gas
a structure of government characterized by the division of powers between a national government and associated regional governments
Texas Constitution of 1827
first state constitution, mexican state
Texas Constitution of 1836
own individual republic
Texas Constitution of 1845
member of US
Texas Constitution of 1861
Texas secedes from Union
Texas Constitution of 1876
The lengthy, much amended state constitution, a product of the post-Reconstruction era that remains in effect today
How many times has the Texas Constitution of 1876 been amended as of 2014?
full faith and credit clause
most government actions of another state must be officially recognized by public officials in Texas
constitutional amendment election
election, typically in November of an odd-numbered year, in which voters are asked to approve one or more proposed constitutional amendments. an amendment must receive a majority of the popular vote to be approved
"Local Government is a matter of absolute right; and the state may not take it away"
relationships between and among different governments that are on the same or different level
municipal (city) government
a local government for incorporated community established by law as a city
a local law enacted by a city council or approved by popular vote in a referendum or intiative election
a citizen-drafted measure proposed by a specific number or percentage of qualified voters, which becomes law if approved by popular vote.
a process by which issues are referred to the voters to accept or reject
a citizen popularity elected to preside over the county commissioners court, and in smaller counties, to hear civil and criminal cases
consolidation of units of local government within an urban area under a single authority
council of governments (COG)
a regional planning body composed of governmental units
extraterritorial jurisdiction (ETJ)
the limited authority a city has outside its boundaries
to make an outlying area part of a city
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