"the increasing proportion of people that live in towns and cities" and represents the demographic transition or change from rural areas to urban areas.
The most urbanised places
Are the most economically developed, with North America, Europe and Oceania all displaying high percentages of urbanisation and all starting with high levels after 1950 (all over 50%) These have all continued to urbanise, but rates have slowed down.
Contains many Newly Industrialising Countries (NICs) such as India, and China, and Asian Tigers such as Malaysia, Thailand and South Korea. These areas have had a phenomenal rise in urbanisation from 18% to 45% in 2011.
Rapid industrialisation and changes in agriculture
Some of the reasons for urbanisation in many countries
18th and 19th and early 20th centuries
Period of rapid industrialisation and urbanisation in many HICs driven by rural to urban migration, this has gradually slowed down.
The outward growth of urban development including population and businesses which may engulf surrounding villages and towns into a larger urban agglomeration.
Outlying areas of a city which are close enough to the city centre to be accessible by commuters.
The expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities.
Negative of urbanisation in LICs
Encourages the growth of unplanned and illegal shanty towns. The land occupied by shanty towns is often unsuitable for dense urban settlement.
Positive of urbanisation
Urban areas tend to have a much better provision of education and services, basic infrastructure (roads, availability of piped water, electricity etc.) as it is easier to deliver these services en masse to large populations
Social positive of suburbanisation on the inner city
Suburbs mean that there is less need for high-rise, high-density housing, such as in deindustrialised areas of Newcastle, leading to clearance and replacement by low-rise, low-density housing. This is better for residents.
Environmental positive of suburbanisation on the inner city
Derelict land can be cleared in the Inner city allowing for increased opportunity for environmental improvement of that land to create recreational open spaces.
Economic and social negative of suburbanisation on the inner city
Suburbanisation can lead to the decline of inner city areas as skilled people and businesses move away.
Social negative of suburbanisation on the inner city
Communities are split up and damaged as people migrate out to the suburbs.
Economic and environmental negative of suburbanisation on the inner city
Suburbanisation means that more buildings are left vacant. These buildings might be dangerous, look bad and stop people investing in the area (inward investment).
Economic positive of suburbanisation for suburbs
The local tax base increases which means that councils can afford to develop new facilities and services in the expanding suburbs.
Economic negative of suburbanisation for suburbs
Land and houses increases in price as demand increases at the city edge.
Environmental negative of suburbanisation for suburbs
The green belt, designed to limit city growth, is put under increasing pressure. There is increased commuting therefore increased congestion and pollution.