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Social Studies Final - Bingener/Fries
Terms in this set (76)
When larger companies bought smaller railroad companies to create railroad barons often corrupt through pooling and rebates.
Groups formed by workers that held meetings and protests in order to reform work's rights.
Second wave of immigrations that sparked discrimination. Literacy tests, and health screenings were often rigged to allow the exemplary immigrant in. Expanded cities and sweatshops.
Pure Food + Drug Act
Were created to monitor the ingredients in meat, food, and drugs by creating ingredient lists and regular facility check ups.
Goal of NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: Wanted to gain the same recognition and opportunities to be viewed as equal, to gain equal rights and end racism.
Muckraker that used journalism to expose the meatpacking industry in his book "The Jungle"
The act of America expanding its relations and property through trading and obtaining land. Started with Alaska and then followed the Sea Power plan by Alfred Mahan to become a world power
Started by the temperance movement and caused the ban of alcohol through the 18 amendment, and then was repealed through the 21 amendment, bootleggers
1920s Car Industry
Revolutionized by Henry Ford by providing more money for less hours to his workers and using the assembly line, this caused car prices to drop as they were being produced faster and were being bought with the newly earned money. Allowed the car industry to grow, as well as the steel, rubber, and glass industries.
Henry Ford Manufacturing techniques
Assembly line, paying workers more, less working hours, weekends
Urged to buy new appliances with the advancement of technology, felt pressure to out buy their peers. Often bought on credit
Harding and Coolidge
Both republican presidents, Harding was very chatty and created the Ohio gang. Coolidge was very quiet and promoted isolationism for America. Both believed in big business and laissez faire
New 1920s girl who wore less clothing and had shorter hair often listened to Jazz, was the style for women that was less traditional.
New music genre that helped spur the Harlem renaissance
Movement that helped to bring white and black people together by respecting art from African Americans.
Teapot Dome Scandal
Scandal under Harding that was the product of Albert Fall's doing. It occurred by Fall using money from oil fields that was supposed to go to the navy for himself.
Tariff created that placed high taxes on imports to stimulate America's economy through the buying of American goods. Back fired as countries responded by taxing American imports with reduced the number of export and thus profit off of American goods.
Causes of the Great Depression
Over production of goods after the war caused many farmers and later industries to go into debt, which did not help. Then consumers bought too much on credit and could not pay it off creating a dearth in circulation of money, world wide economic disorder
Hoover and the Great Depression
Believed the people could get out of the depression themselves and took a laissez faire approach, and created volunteerism as a solution, rugged individualism
Social Security Act
Provided pensions to the elderly, and the unemployed that was part of the welfare system- FDR
Conservatives criticism of the New Deal
Believed that the New Deal used too much money through deficit spending, also believed that the executive branch was too powerful and that checks and balances were not being put to use.
Part of prime pumping and a plan devised by economist John Keynes, called the Keynes plan which involved the government spending money on programs to increase employment, and then using the taxes off the employed to pay off the debt.
League of Nations
Coalition created through countries that allied together to promote peace. U.S. was not in it. No standing army
Isolationists vs. Interventionist
Isolationists = America not being involved in foreign affairs
Interventionist= America being involved in foreign affairs
The allies choosing to wipe out Germany first as it proved to be the most dangerous.
Code name for the development of the first atomic bomb
Truman use of Atomic Bomb
Used in Japan on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, then when Japan still did not end the war America threatened another bombing.
After W.W. II - U.S. and U.S.S.S.R
Imaginary barrier that represented the furthest that America and the allies would let communism spread
Military Spending during WWII
10x more spending than WWI, thus creating financial strains in America, created jobs and industries that supported the war through exports . Increase taxes, war bonds
Divide that split North and South Korea
Foreign Policy after WWII
Stop communism and the spread of communism at all costs.
Time period when Americans became paranoid about Communism, spies, and peoples relations to Russia.
When America was on the brink of a nuclear war with Russia
Growth of Suburbs In 1950s
People migrated towards the Sunbelt and suburbs for more job opportunities as well as to escape the overcrowded cities that had crime and disease.
Focus of Education in the 1950s
Education was not a major concern in America. Students did not care about the lessons or education they received.
Media and the Civil Rights
Media helped spread the voices of Civil Rights leaders and movements, as well as the conditions others were experiencing around America.
Birmingham and the Civil Rights Movement
After Birmingham Alabama was shown through the media and how segregated the town was the country was in disgust, through riots and protests spurred by the media and support from MLK and JFK Birmingham was eventually changed
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Ended segregation in public places, and unemployment due to race religion gender or ethnicity.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Ended the literacy test to vote for African Americans. Amount of African American voters tripled as a result.
Made poll taxes illegal
Cuban Missile Crisis
U2 spy plane discovered Russia placed 42 missiles in Cuba aimed at U.S. JFK set up a blockade. Missiles were removed. Hotline was set up
Phone line from Washington D.C to Moscow Russia created after the Cuban Missile Crisis to promote communication between the countries and to prevent further violence.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
Banned the testing of nuclear weapons
Kennedy and Civil Rights
Kennedy promoted Civil Rights, however most were acts were not passed as JFK was hesitant to offend his voters. Helped with the integration of Mississippi University, and the desegregation of Birmingham, as well as laying out the Civil Rights Act of 1965 before getting assassinated.
Council appointed under Earl Warren to investigate JFK's death and to research conspiracies.
Hawk vs Dove
Hawk= Pro-war in Vietnam
Dove= Anti-war in Vietnam
Dove's protests proved more effective, however more deadly.
Surprise attacks from the Vietcong to South Vietnam and America during a declared holiday.
Herbicide used by America to deplete that jungles in Vietnam, later proved to have serious health risks.
Nixon "Peace with Honor"
Trying to get America out of the war without looking like America was surrendering. This was then solved through Vietnamization, in which South Vietnamese troops replaced American troops as America left the war.
SALT I Treaty
Between Russia and America that agreed to limit the number of nuclear weapons in their arsenals.
Book written by Rachel Carson that featured the protection of the environment and one's health
Nixon's Policy with China
A Ping-Pong diplomacy was set up, which opened up communication with China for the first time. 1st U.S president to visit China
Better known as the hippie movement that supported peace, civil rights, and equality for everyone as well as illegal drug use and casual sex.
Helped to pass the equal rights amendment
Speaker for women's rights, exposed the playboy mansions for their treatment of women.
Opposition to the environmental movement
People that were against the environmental movement usually big business owners
Nixon's use of executive privilege
Believed that as president he had the right to exclude information from authority. He tried to use this to refuse that handing of his tapes to the White House for the Watergate investigation.
Effects of Nixon's resignation
This shocked the country and validated the distrust that many felt in the government
Reagan and the Cold War
Believed that he had to defeat Russia through sheer force, which resulted in the massive spending toward the building of America's government. Made the SDI program to use satellites to destroy incoming missiles to America.
Fall of the Berlin Wall
After Gorbachev created Glasnost and Perestroika people felt that they could protest for their rights; this resulted in East and West Germany demanding passage to each side, Gorbachev then opened the wall, and the citizens tore down the wall.
Conservatives vs Liberals
Conservatives= Less government regulation, traditional, religion, patriotism.
Liberals= More government regulation, more accepting beliefs, modernists
Program created by Nixon to give back to states, and turned materials and money from going state-government, to state-government-state. Wanted less federal control of the states
Nixon apportioning the profits from taxes among states rather than the federal government
Ford's Pardoning of Nixon
Ford pardoned Nixon in order to keep the nation at peace and out of drama, however people viewed Ford as corrupt for there must have been a deal between the two politicians.
Iran Hostage Crisis
When Iran invaded the US Embassy and took 66 hostages, and tortured them to be able to have some power over America.
The belief that if you reduce taxes it will encourage the American people to buy more thus improving the American economy (Trickle down theory 2.0)
George H.W. Bush + Taxes
After the nation was left with debt from Reaganomics and the home loan crisis, Bush had to break his promise of no new taxes twice.
Opening relations between the government and the people in Russia, set up by Gorbachev
The formal reforms made to turn the communist government into a capitalist government by Gorbachev.
Ford + Carters Economic Issues
Both dealt with recession and inflation known as Stagflation, however Carter had to deal with the energy crisis as well.
Carter and the Oil Crisis
When OPEC created an embargo towards America for oil, and America could not function, caused many problems and tension. Carter stated to ration oil and to look for alternative sources
Camp David Accords
When Israel, America and Egypt, met to discuss recognizing Israel as a country to reduce violence.
A Nation at Risk
Speech made by Reagan to discuss the quality of America's education, and to made much needed reforms.
Persian Gulf War
Spurred by Iraq invading Kuwait over the oil production. America then counter attacked as Kuwait was an ally, and Kuwait and Iraq were seriously damaged.
When America sold weapons to Iran to promote the release of hostages. Went against the foreign policy of negotiating with terrorists.
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