Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter One: The Themes of Biology and Scientific Inquiry
Terms in this set (70)
At its root, what is biology?
the scientific study of life
What two things do biologists do?
ask questions and seek answers (how, why?)
What are the seven properties of life?
order, reproduction, growth/development, energy processing, response to and interaction with the environment, regulation, evolutionary adaptation
What is Order?
the highly ordered structure that typifies life
What is Reproduction?
the ability of organisms to reproduce their own kind
What is growth and development?
consistent growth and development controlled by inherited DNA
What is Energy processing?
the use of solar energy or chemical energy to power an organism's activities and chemical reactions
What is response to and interaction with the environment?
an ability to respond to environmental stimuli, which include other organisms and physical factors
What is regulation?
an ability to control an organism's internal environment within limits that sustain life
What is evolutionary adaption?
individuals with traits best suited to their environments have greater reproductive success and pass their traits to offspring
What are the five unifying themes of biology?
organization, information, energy and matter, interactions, evolution
Life can be studied at BLANK BLANK, from molecules to the entire living planet.
What are ten levels of organization of the world from smallest to largest?
atoms, molecule, cel, tissue, organ, organsystems/individual organism, population, biological community, ecosystem, biosphere
What are atoms?
the building blocks of matter, which compose the universe
What is a molecule?
created when two or more atoms are held together by chemical bonds
What is a cell?
the smallest unit of life
What is tissue?
groups of cells that perform a set of unique tasks
What is an organ?
made up of different types of tissues, performs a broader range of functions than any of the individual tissue types
Organs are networked into BLANK BLANK that come together to form an BLANK BLANK.
Organ systems, individual organism
What is a population?
composed of individuals of a single species that interact and interbreed in a shared environment
What is a biological community?
populations of different species that live in a shared environment
What is the main difference between a population and a community?
a population is composed of a single species, but a community is composed of different species
What is an ecosystem?
a physical environment and all the communities in it
What is a biosphere?
the highest level of the biological hierarchy, all the world's living organisms and the places where they live
At which level of the biological hierarchy do we find a correlation between structure and function?
True or false: the cell is the smallest unit of organization that can perform all activities required for life.
Which cells are enclosed by a membrane that regulates passage of materials between the cell and its environment?
What are cells of bacteria and archaea called?
What type of cell composes all forms of life other than bacteria and archaea?
What is a eukaryotic cell?
membrane-enclosed organelles, including a nucleus
What is prokaryotic cell?
does not contain a nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles, simple and small
How large or most plant and animal cells?
How large are most bacteria?
How large are most viruses?
What is 1m equal to?
10^2 cm = 10^3 mm = 10^6 um = 10^9 nm
Which cells hold chromosomes?
What do chromosomes do?
contain genetic material in the form of DNA
What does DNA stand for?
What are genes?
unites of inheritance, encode information for building the molecules synthesized within the cell, directs the development of an organism
What are the two long chains in DNA called?
What are the four nucleotides?
A, G, C, T
What is gene expression?
the process of converting information from gene to cellular product
What is the process that DNA goes through to create a protein?
DNA (double-stranded) is transcribed into mRNA (single stranded), which is then translated into a chain of amino acids, which then fold into a protein
What are plants and other photosynthetic organisms called?
What are consumers?
organisms that feed on other organisms or their remains
How does energy move through an ecosystem?
flows through it, usually entering as light and exiting as heat
How do chemicals travels through the ecosystem?
they cycles through, they are used and then recycled
In BLANK BLANK, the output, or product of a process, regulates that very process.
What is a negative feedback system?
the most common form of regulation in living organisms, response reduce stye initial stimulus
What is positive feedback?
the end product speeds up its own production
What two things do organisms interact with on the ecosystem level?
other organisms, the physical factors in their environment
What are the two parts of the latin name for species?
the genus (general genre of animal) and the species name (specific to that organism)
What are the three domains?
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
What cell type is in domains Bacteria and Archaea?
What does Domain Eukarya contain?
protists and three kingdoms (Plants, Fungi, and Animals)
How do Plants eat?
produce their own food by photosynthesis
How do fungi eat?
How do animals eat?
ingest their food
What are the most numerous and diverse eukaryotes?
protists including algae and protozoa
What are three unifying elements of life?
cell membrane structure, DNA as the universal genetic language, gene expression
What does the word "science" mean in Latin?
What is inquiry?
the search for information and explanations of natural phenomena
What are three aspects of the scientific method?
making observations, forming logical hypotheses, and testing them
What is qualitative data?
often takes the form of recorded descriptions
What is quantitative data?
expressed as numerical measurements, organized into tables and graphs
What is inductive reasoning?
draws conclusions through the logical process of induction
What must a hypothesis do?
lead to predictions that can be tested
What is deductive reasoning?
uses general premises to make specific predictions
What is the difference between the independent variable and the dependent variable?
the former is the one that is manipulated by the researchers while the latter is the one predicted to be affected in response
What is the goal of technology?
apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Chapter 17: Gene Expression--from gene to protein
Chapter Two: The chemical context of life
Chapter 18: Regulation of gene expression
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Campbell Essential Biology Chapter 1
Campbell Essential Biology Chapter 1
Unit 1 Quiz BIO 1175 ONLINE
Biology chapt 1
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
American Government Test 3
Govt. Test 2
Hymnic and Wisdom Final
Archaeology Final Bayer
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
BLaw Midterm Consideration (Ch.12)
Global Studies Unit 5
BIO 1306 exam 2