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24 terms

Apologia General Science (Sonlight) Module 11

Vocabulary from the Sonlight Instructors Guide
STUDY
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Bone Marrow
Produces the cells that are in your blood
skeletal muscles
Bones to help you move. These are your voluntary muscles.
Smooth muscles
Control the movements necessary for your body's internal organs and blood vessels to function. Controlled by the brain, so movements they cause are involuntary.
cardiac muscle
A muscle found only in the heart. I controls how the blood is pumped throughout your body.
Keratinization
The process of skin cells hardening so that they form your hair, nails, and the outer layer of your skin.
Endoskeleton
the sum total of all bones in the body
Vertebrates
All creatures with a vertebral column backbones.
Axial skeleton
The portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the head, neck, and trunk.
Appendicular skeleton
The portion of the skeleton that attaches to the axial skeleton and has the limbs attached to it.
Invertebrates
Organisms from kingdom Animalia with no backbone.
Exoskeleton
A body covering, typically made of chitin, that provides support and protection.
Arthropods
Animals with exoskeletons, such as grasshoppers.
Tendon
connective tissue that attaches the skeletal muscles to the skeleton.
Cartilage
A tough, flexible substance that allows joints to rub up against each other without damage.
Ligament
Lubricates the joints so that their motion is smooth and easy.
Synovial fluid
Lubricates the joints so that their motion is smooth and easy.
Involuntary muscles
Muscles that cause involuntary movement, which is movement made without conscious thought.
Phototropism
The tendency of plants to grow so that they face the light.
Gravotropism
The tendency for a plant to sense which way is "up" and to grow that way.
Epidermis
Outer layer of skin
Dermis
The inner layer below the epidermis
Hypodermis
Below the dermis and composed mostly of fat. It is not technically considered part of the skin
Symbiosis
A close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits.
Skin in other organisms
* Mammals - produce hair
* Birds - produce feathers
* Fish - produce scales
* Reptile - produce scales
* Amphibians - also breathe with their skin