Chapter 3: sensation and perception
Terms in this set (175)
A ___ is a person with synesthesia, which literally means "joined sensation."
disorder in which the signals from the various sensory organs are
processed in the wrong cortical areas, resulting in the sense information being interpreted as more than one sensation.
The ___ ___ are specialized forms of neurons, the cells that make up the nervous system.
___ ___ (1795-1878) did studies trying to determine the smallest difference between two weights that could be detected.
A jnd is the smallest difference between two stimuli that is detectable 50 percent of the time, and Weber's law simply means that whatever the difference between stimuli might be, it is always a___.
the process that occurs when special receptors in the sense organs are
activated, allowing various forms of outside stimuli to become neural signals in the brain.
the process of converting outside stimuli, such as light, into neural activity.
the smallest difference between two stimuli that is detectable 50 percent of the time.
just noticeable difference ( jnd or the difference threshold)
the lowest level of stimulation that a person can consciously detect 50 percent of the time the stimulation is present.
Remember, the jnd is detecting a difference __ two stimuli.
Stimuli that are below the level of conscious awareness are called
Many people believe that these stimuli act upon the unconscious mind, influencing behavior in a process called
At one time, many people believed that a market researcher named__ had demonstrated the power of subliminal perception in advertising.
In this effort, researchers have used __ __ __ and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to verify the existence of sub- liminal perception and associated learning in the laboratory
event-related potentials (ERPs)
above the threshold
absolute threshold for sight
A candle flame at 30 miles on a clear, dark night
absolute threshold for hearing
The tick of a watch 20 feet away in a quiet room
absolute threshold for smell
One drop of perfume diffused throughout a three-room apartment
absolute threshold for taste
1 teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water
absolute threshold for touch
A bee's wing falling on the cheek from 1 centimeter above
the process of sensory adaptation differs because the receptor cells ___ become less responsive to an unchanging stimulus—garbage odors included—and the receptors no longer send signals to the brain.
tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging information.
tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging.
It was__ who first proposed that light is actually tiny "packets" of waves.
These "wave packets" are called___ and have specific wavelengths associated with them
What are the 3 aspects to our perception of light?
is determined by the
White light amplitude of the wave—how high or how
low the wave actually is.
___, or hue, is largely determined by the length of the wave.
Long wavelengths (measured in nanometers) are found
at the red end of the ___ ___ (the portion of the whole spectrum of light that is visible to the human eye;
refers to the purity of the color people perceive:
The surface of the eye is covered in a clear membrane called the.
phthalmologists can use both ___ and ___procedures to remove small portions of the cornea, changing its curvature, and thus the focus in the eye.
photoreactive keratectomy (PRK)
laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)
Iris opening that changes size depending on the amount of light in the environment
Changes shape to bring objects into focus
Contains photoreceptor cells
central area of retina; greatest density of photoreceptors
sends visual information to the brain
Where the optic nerve leaves the eye; there are no photoreceptor cells here
blind spot (optic disk)
Jelly-like liquid that nourishes and gives shape to the eye
Bends light waves so the image can be focused on the retina
Clear liquid that nourishes the eye
Its muscles control the size of the pupil
the change in the thickness of the lens as the eye focuses on objects that are far away or close.
visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina, responsible for non- color sensitivity to low levels of light.
visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina, responsible for color vision and sharpness of vision.
Behind the iris, suspended by muscles, is another clear structure called the.
The variation in thickness allows the lens to project a sharp image on the retina. People lose this ability as the lens hardens through aging (a disorder called).
Once past the lens, light passes through a large, open space filled with a clear, jelly-like fluid called the
The final stop for light within the eye is the___, a light- sensitive area at the back of the eye containing three layers
What are the three layers of the retina?
rods and cones, special cells (photoreceptors)
area in the retina where the axons of the three layers of retinal cells exit the eye to form the optic nerve, insensitive to light.
the recovery of the eye's sensitivity to visual stimuli in darkness after exposure to bright lights.
when a person has difficulty seeing well enough to drive at night or get around in a darkened room or house.
the trichromatic ("three colors") theory. First proposed by ___ in 1802 and later modified by ___in 1852
Hermann von Helmholtz
Most people probably think that the primary colors are red, yellow, and blue, but these are the primary colors when talking about ___—not when talking about light.
Paints __ light, and the way reflected light mixes is different from the way direct light mixes.
the recovery of the eye's sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness.
theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones: red, blue, and green.
__ and __ (1964) identified three types of cones in the retina, each sensitive to a range of wavelengths, measured in nanometers (nm), and a peak sensitivity that roughly corresponds to three different colors (although hues/colors can vary depending on brightness and saturation).
opponent-process theory based on an idea first suggested by
images that occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time
even after the original stimulus is removed.
theory of color vision that proposes visual neurons (or groups of neurons) are stimulated by light of one color and inhibited by light of another color.
But in reality "color blindness" is caused by defective cones in the retina of the eye and as a more general term,__ is more accurate, as most people with "color blindness" have two type of cones working and can see many colors.
people either have no cones or have cones that are not working at all.
monochrome color blindness
having one cone that does not work properly.
(red-green color deficiency) is due to the lack of functioning red cones
(type of red-green color deficiency) results from the lack of functioning green cones.
A lack of functioning blue cones is much less common and called__ (blue-yellow color deficiency).
Color-deficient vision involving one set of cones is inherited in a pattern known as
The gene for color-deficient vision is.
What are three psychological properties of light?
Wavelengths are interpreted by the brain as the frequency or _
Amplitude is interpreted as __, how soft or loud a sound is.
a richness in the tone of the sound.
cycles or waves per second, a measurement of frequency.
the visible part of the ear.
short tunnel that runs
from the pinna to the eardrum.
snail-shaped structure of the inner ear that is filled with fluid.
bundle of axons from the hair cells in the inner ear.
what is the other name for eardrum
THE INNER EAR membrane is called the __ and its vibrations set off another chain reaction within the inner ear.
When the oval window vibrates, it causes the fluid in the cochlea to vibrate. This fluid surrounds a membrane running through the middle of the cochlea called the __
The basilar membrane is the resting place of the __, which contains the receptor cells for the sense of hearing.
organ of Corti
On the organ of Corti are special cells called __, which are the receptors for sound.
The oldest of the three theories, place theory, is based on an idea proposed in 1863 by __and elaborated on and modified by __, beginning with experiments first published in 1928
Hermann von Helmholtz
Georg von Békésy
Frequency theory, developed by __ in 1886, states that pitch is related to how fast the basilar membrane vibrates.
For place-theory research to be accurate, the basilar membrane has to vibrate unevenly—which it does when the frequency of the sound is __ 1000 Hz.
developed by __ and __, called the volley principle appears to account for pitches from about 400 Hz up to about 4000.
psychological experience of sound that corresponds to the frequency of the sound waves; higher frequencies are perceived as higher pitches.
theory of pitch that states that different pitches are experienced by the stimulation of hair cells in different locations on the organ of Corti.
theory of pitch that states that pitch is related to the speed of vibrations in the basilar membrane.
theory of pitch that states that frequencies from about 400 Hz to 4000 Hz cause the hair cells (auditory neurons) to fire in a volley pattern, or take turns in firing.
when sound vibrations cannot be passed from the eardrum to the cochlea.
Conduction hearing impairment
when the problem lies either in the inner ear or in the auditory pathways and cortical areas of the brain.
nerve hearing impairment
_is a fancy word for an extremely annoying ringing in one's ears, and it can also be caused by infections or loud noises—including loud music in headphones, so you might want to turn down that music player!
A technique for restoring some hearing to those with nerve hearing impairment makes use of an electronic device called a
What are the 3 theories of pitch perception
__ are the common name for the taste receptor cells, special kinds of neurons found in the mouth that are responsible for the sense of taste, or gustation.
what are the bumps on your tongue
the sensation of a taste.
In 1916 a German psychologist named __ proposed that there are four primary tastes: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter.
__ supported the idea that there is a fifth kind of taste receptor that detects a pleasant "brothy" taste associated with foods like chicken soup, tuna, kelp, cheese, and soy products, among others.
Lindemann proposed that this fifth taste be called__, a Japanese word first coined in 1908 by Dr. Kikunae Ikeda of Tokyo Imperial University to describe the taste.
olfaction (olfactory sense)
the sensation of smell
The olfactory receptor cells each have about a half dozen to a dozen little "hairs," called__, that project into the cavity.
areas of the brain located just above the sinus cavity and just below the frontal lobes that receive information from the olfactory receptor cells.
the body senses consisting of the skin senses, the kinesthetic sense, and the vestibular senses.
the sensations of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other.
the sensations of movement, balance, and body position.
There are __ __ __ just beneath the uppermost layer of the skin that respond to changes in temperature and to pressure—and to pain.
free nerve endings
There are receptors that detect pain (and pressure) in the organs, a type of pain called .
Pain sensations in the skin, muscles, tendons, and joints are carried on large nerve fibers and are called
There are people who are born without the ability to feel pain, rare conditions called __and __
congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA).
condition called __ __ __occurs when a person who has had an arm or leg removed sometimes "feels" pain in the missing limb
phantom limb pain
The best current explanation for how the sensation of pain works is called gate-control theory, first proposed by__ and__
Stimulation of the pain receptor cells releases a chemical called
the body's natural version of morphine
Special receptors located in the muscles, tendons, and joints are part of the body's sense of movement and position in space—the movement and location of the arms, legs, and so forth in relation to one another. This sense is called,
the sense of balance
The __ __ are tiny sacs found just above the cochlea.
The __ __ are three somewhat circular tubes that are also filled with fluid that will stimulate hairlike receptors when rotated.
the tendency to get nauseated when in a moving vehicle, especially one with an irregular movement.
an explanation of motion sickness in which the information from the eyes conflicts with the information
from the vestibular senses, resulting in dizziness, nausea, and other physical discomfort.
sensory conflict theory
Why is smell a chemical sense?
because substance molecules are suspended in the air, carried to the nasal cavity, and fit into receptor sites
What makes smell unique?
signals do not first travel to the thalamus before going to the brain
WHat are the 5 basic tastes?
Skin senses are processed by who?
Kinesthetic senses are processed by who?
proprioceptors in skin, joints, muscles, and tendons
vestibular senses are processed by who?
What senses are responsible for motion sickness?
the method by which the sensations experienced at any given moment are interpreted and organized in some meaningful fashion.
the tendency to interpret an object as always being the same actual size, regardless of its distance.
the tendency to interpret the shape of an object as being constant, even when its shape changes on the retina.
the tendency to perceive the apparent brightness of an object as the same even when the light conditions change.
the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, as existing on a back- ground.
visual illusions in which the figure and ground can be reversed.
the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping.
the tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as being part of the same group.
the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete.
the tendency to perceive things as simply as possible with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern.
the tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related.
In __ __, the tendency is to perceive objects that are in a common area or region as being in a group.
the ability to perceive the world in three dimensions.
cues for perceiving depth based on one eye only.
monocular cues (pictorial depth cues)
cues for perceiving depth based on both eyes.
the tendency for parallel lines to appear to converge on each other.
perception that occurs when objects that a person expects to be of a certain size appear to be small and are, therefore, assumed to be much farther away.
the assumption that an object that appears to be blocking part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer.
the haziness that surrounds objects that are farther away from the viewer, causing the distance to be perceived as greater.
aerial (atmospheric) perspective
the tendency for textured surfaces to appear to become smaller and finer as distance from the viewer increases.
the perception of motion of objects in which close objects appear to move more quickly than objects that are farther away.
as a monocular cue, the brain's use of information about the changing thickness of the lens of the eye in response to looking at objects that are close or far away.
the rotation of the two eyes in their sockets to focus on a single object, resulting in greater convergence for closer objects and lesser convergence if objects are distant.
Accommodation is also called a
the difference in images between the two eyes, which is greater for objects that are close and smaller for distant objects.
An _ is a perception that does not correspond to reality: People think they see something when the reality is quite different.
What is the difference between an illusion and a hallucination?
an illusion is a distorted perception of something that is really there, but a hallucination originates in the brain, not in reality.
responses of neurons in the primary visual cortex that respond best to bars of light of a specific orientation. Such neurons are called "simple cells" and were first discovered by __ and
In their minds, people _ the inward-facing angles toward them like the outside corners of a building, and they make the outward-facing angles _ away from them like the inside corners of the room
Segall and colleagues found that people in Western cultures, having carpentered buildings with lots of straight lines and corners known as
people from non-Western cultures having round huts with few corners live in an
Another common illusion is the __ __, in which the moon on the horizon* appears to be much larger than the moon in the sky
Because people know that objects that are farther away from them yet still appear large are very large indeed, they _ the moon in their minds—a misapplication of the principle of size constancy.
Because people know that objects that are farther away from them yet still appear large are very large indeed, they "magnify" the moon in their minds—a misapplication of the principle of size constancy. This explanation of the moon illusion is called the
apparent distance hypothesis.
illusion of line length that is distorted by inward-turning or outward-turning corners on the ends of the lines, causing lines of equal length to appear to be different.
In this effect, a small, stationary light in a darkened room will appear to move or drift because there are no surrounding cues to indicate that the light is not moving.
Another effect is __ __ seen in motion pictures, in which a rapid series of still pictures will seem to be in motion.
Another movement illusion related to stroboscopic motion is the __ __, in which lights turned on in sequence appear to move.
The __ illusion is one of many motion-illusion images designed by Dr. Akiyoshi Kitaoka.
Eye movements have also been found to be a primary cause for the illusory motion seen in images based on a 1981 painting by Isia Levant, _ __
The way in which people __ what they perceive can also influence their perception.
the tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations influence those perceptions
perceptual set (perceptual expectancy)
the use of preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole.
the analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complete perception.
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