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The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion
Terms in this set (157)
First Stage of European contacts
European discovery, exploration, initial conquest and settlement of the New World. Witnessed penetration of Southeast Asian markets by Portugal and Netherlands. Closed at end of 17th century
Second Era of European Contacts
Mercantile Empires, one of colonial trade rivalry among Spain, France, and Great Britain. Goods were there to foster trade and commerce, which sparked rivalry and conflict in imperial trouble spots. Result=Large navies and major naval wars at mid-century, (linked to war on European continent). Anglo-french side of contest=>a second Hundred Year War
European imperial ventures in Americas
Presence of slavery. Slave population consisted of entirely of people that had been forced to import to America or born to slaves.
abilities and talents are used to pay off debt. Happens today, at Chinese restaurants.
commodity, you could be bought and sold.
Transported, cost too much to keep them in jails so they left to the Americas for labor.
James Edward Oglethorpe
A British general, Member of Parliament, philanthropist, and founder of the colony of Georgia. As a social reformer, he hoped to resettle Britain's poor, especially those in debtors' prisons, in the New World. got them bad ladies out in Georgia. Sent out Quakers (to Pennsylvania), Pilgrims, misfits.
Racial mixes through marriage, not seen as a good thing. English did not like this. What's out in the woods is the female indians. Mixed races, women are seen as scary=>misogyny. English women for English men alone.
Slave-based plantation economy
This economy leads to 3 centuries of extensive involvement by Europeans and Americans in slave trade with West Africa. On American continent, slave trade created extensive communities of Africans from Chesapeake region of Maryland and Virginia south to Brazil.
These people bring labor, languages, customs, ethnic associations. Atlantic Economy and societies in America were creation of both Europeans and Africans. Native Americans pressed to margins of societies. English Colonies of North American Seaboard and Spanish Colonies of Mexico and South America freed themselves from European Control.
Third Era of European Contacts
19th century, European government made empires involving European administration of indigenous people in Africa and Asia, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Algeria. Based on free labor
Fourth and Last Period
Mid and Late 20th century before decolonization of peeps who had lived under European rule
Europeans entered political control over rest of world. Treated others as social, intellectual, economic inferiors. Greed, religious zeal and political ambition. Technological supremacy related to naval power and gunpowder.
Treaty of Utrecht established boundaries of empire
This country controlled all of South America (except Brazil and Guiana), Cali, Mexico, Florida, Cuban Islands, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Hispaniola (DR)
North Atlantic seaboard, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Bermuda, Jamaica, Barbados.
covered St. Lawrence River valley and Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys. West Indian Isles of St. Dominique (Haiti), Guadeloupe and Martinique, India and West Coast of Africa.
Savage wife, that French merchants had while they were trading furs. Left the squaws, and went to their wives in France. Focused on furs and sugars
Surinam (Dutch Guiana) in SA, Cape Colony of South Africa, stations in West Africa, Sri Lanka, Bengal. Java trade (Indonesia). Vast trading empire, bigger than size of United Netherlands. Closest to England, but they found themselves focused on trade. First to bring slaves to North America.
Mercantilism and Mercantile System
words invented by later opponents and critics of the system where governments regulated trade and commerce. Necessary for nation to gain a favorable trade balance of gold and silver.
Measure of a country's wealth. gold or silver in bulk before coining, or valued by weight. Nation was rich only if amassed more bullion than rivals.
Mercantilist Statesmen and Traders
These men regard world as arena of scare resources and economic limitations. Assumed modest levels of economic growth were possible at dispense of other nation. Wealth of state might expand if armies and Predated expansion of agricultural and industrial productivity. Wealth of state expands only if its armies or navies conquered domestic colonial turf of another state: gained productive capacity of that area
Primary Concern of Mercantilist Writers
economic welfare of home country
Were there to provide markets and natural resources for industries of motherland (sovereign colony). Motherland gives back protection and administered colonies. All manufactured goods came from motherland. Motherland controlled what colonies could buy and trade.
Islands close to America, jewels of empire. Raised tobacco, cotton, indigo, coffee, sugar. Represented one aspect of make changes in consumption that marked 18th century. bad condition to secure a stable, self-reproducing slave population.
staple not luxury. In coffee, tea, cocoa, candy, preserving fruits, brewing industry. No limit of $ to the plantation owners. Slave labor allowed profit of cultivation of products.
Royal African Company
Largest involuntary movement of peoples : England had the biggest slave labor force. Triangle Trade
Killed 142 slaves. Did it for insurance money, when they went to Britain they were on civil trial for insurance fraud-not murder.
Someone came to England with an African Slave, because he stood on free soil, they were free. If you set foot on free soil, you were a free man.
Both France and Britain trade through charted communities that had legal monopolies. East India Company was English institute, French one was called the Compagnie des Indes. Profitable commerce with India. Springboard into market of China.
trading posts or European footholds in India. Existed thru privileges by Indian governments.
Joseph Duplex (french) and Robert Clive (Brit)
These men saw power vacuum as providing opportunities. for expanding control of companies. Each of 2 companies began to take over the government of some of the regions. BEI (British East India Co.). Robert Clive failed school twice. BEI forces outmaneuver
Cricket, Men's field hockey and tea time even in India
Queen Isabella of Castile
(1474-1504) commissioned Columbus, legal link to New World and Spain, was crown of Castile. Castilian monarch assigned government of Spain (Mexico) and Peru. Viceroys were chief execs. in Americas and executed laws of the Council of the Indies.
Viceroyalties were divided into several judicial councils known as audiencias.
Local officers who presided over municipal councils. officers represented vast array of patronage. Needed Slaves: Natives are untrustworthy and susceptible to diseases. They could run away and join other tribes.
Casa de Contratación
AKA House of Trade, in Seville regulated all trade with New World. Cádiz was only port allowed to use American Trade. Casa=Most influential institution of Spanish Empire.
Consulado=Merchant guild of Seville and other groups involved w/ American commerce in Cádiz.
La problema de España
Cannot produce enough to meet demands of Spanish Colonies: could not get their act together. Industrial Revolution is not in Spain, it's in England.
Trade and Bullion Fleets
Administered from Seville. Maintained Spain Trade monopoly. Fleet of commercial vessels (Flotas) controlled by Sevilled merchants and escorted by warships carried merchandise from Spain to ports in America (Portabello, Veracruz, Cartagena on Atlantic coast)
This system worked, but outside trade was illegal. No Spanish colonies could establish trade with each other or building own shipping/ commerce industry. Areas far to south (Buenos Aires) got da goods after shipments had been unloaded at one of the authorized ports. Ships loaded with silver and gold bullion
(1700-1746) tried to use French administrative skills to reassert imperial trade monopoly to improve domestic economy and revive Spanish power in Europe. Under rule, Spanish coastal patrol vessels tried to suppress smuggling in American H20s.
Problem with connection
England has the best naval forces. Problem with connection between America and England. There is a zero-sum situation, but colonists are being squeezed for British prices, because they could get a better bargain with the French. Can't get reasonable prices for it. Too many resources for England to deal with. Economic problem.
Incident with policy led to war w/ England, the same year when Phil established viceroyalty of New Granada (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador). Goal=strengthen royal government there. Britain went to war with Spain. Minor event, but opening encounter of European wars until 1815
Spain, ally of France, defeated power. government circles are convinced that colonial system had to be reformed. Imperial reforms of Charles III, = to colonial measures British government undertook after this date, which led to American revolution.
(1759-1788) importante del imperial reformers. attempted to reassert Spain control of empire. Emphasized royal ministers rather than councils. Role of Council of Indies and Casa de Contratación diminished
Charles abolished monopolies of Seville and Cádiz and permitted other Spain ciudades to trade w/ America. Opened SA and Caribbean ports to trade and allowed commerce betwixt Spanish ports in America.
Charles organized 4th viceroyalty in Río de la Plata (Argentina, Uruguay Paraguay and Bolivia)
To increase tax efficiency and end corruption, Chuck III introduced this institution. Patterned on French intendants, made famous as agents of French Royal Admin. under Louis XIV
Persons born in Spain, entered new world to fill new posts (most profitable jobs). Expanding trade gave Spain merchants to Latin America. Economy Remained export oriented.
Persons of European descent born in Spanish colonies. These people felt that they were 2nd class. Resentment provided source to wars of independence in 19th century.
Conquest of Constantinople, Ottoman Empire does not allow exportation of white slaves from regions under its control.
Portuguese import slaves into Iberian Peninsula from the Canary Islands and West Africa. Found in Mediterranean and Northern Europe. Plantation economies based on slave labor: These plantations led to unprecedented interaction between the people of Europe and Africa and between those in Americas and Africa.
African Slave Origin
Depended on internal African Warfare and state-building.
On West African Coast from Senegal to Angola.
Europeans encountered dynamic African societies working out their own internal historic power relationships and rivalyies in which Africans sold and got other Africans from different places.
Beginning of Slavery according to North Americans, arrival of African slaves on a Dutch ship in Jamestown, Virginia.
African slaves' numbers were equal to or more than the white American numbers in multiracial societies. Native American labor was still exploited on South American continent. During late 17th century # of slaves decreased in Spanish South America.
world center of sugar production and chief supplier for growing demand for it. Opening of new areas of cultivation and other economic enterprises required additional slaves during the 18th century.
The prosperity of sugar islands
Exploited in late 17th century, as well as sugar, coffee, tobacco regions of Brazil=>gold mining needed more slaves. Higher prices for slaves
Big increase of slaves occurred in 18th century. 20,000 slaves a year in the West Indies were imported.
90% of Jamaica were black slaves. After mid-century, number was even bigger.
influx of slaves
Means that numbers of forced immigrants outnumbered the slaves of African descent already present. Fertility rate of early slave population was low, death rate high from disease, overwork and malnutrition.
Condition of slaves
High mortality rates with new slaves imported from ongoing trade. REstocking thru the slave trade means the slave pop. of those areas consisted of African peeps, not African descent.
Colonial trade that followed a triangle. European goods (guns) were carried to Africa in exchange for slaves, who then went to West Indies. Traded for sugar, and tropical products, which went to Europe.
Europe to Africa to West Indies: New England to West Indies=fish, rum, lumber for sugar. Amsterdam, Liverpool, England, Nantes, France rested on slave trade. Newport, Rhode Island=Profited from slavery by trading slaves but more often by trading goods w/ West Indies. Shippers who dealt with cotton ,tobacco, sugar depend on slavery.
Political Turmoil in Africa
Civil wars in Kingdom of Kongo, increased slave #. Kongo Wars=Originated in dispute over succession to the throne in late 17th century. Captives sold to slave trade. Other leaders conducted slave raids so captives could be sold to raise funds for more weaponry. Gold Coast Area (Ghana)=Similar to the Kongo Wars.
These are spaces that are cramped, food bad, disease; many died during crossing.
Division in slave population
New Africans, old Africans and the creoles. Plantation owners like the latter two groups more, more accustomed to slavery.More African men than women, so traditional extended African family structure was ruined. Separated families, so that they could not communicate.
A process for a new African slave in which they were prepared for the laborious discipline of slavery. Sold at higher prices. Involved new names, work skills, learning local European language. "Prodding a horse", naked in front of everyone. No connections, separate different so that they could not communicate.
Lay in a more or less isolated rural setting, inhabitants visited counterparts on other plantation or in near towns on market days. Able to sustain elements of their own culture and social structures.
More peeps who could speak African than European.
SC and St. Domingue, most African slaves sold in Kikongo
Two generations for colonial linguo to dominate, result was often dialect combo of African and European.
Organization of African Slaves on plantation into communities with similar ethnic background. Loyalty through solidarity. Nations became a basis for a wide variety of religious communities. Islamic faith. In America, they elected their own king and queen preside over plantation gatherings.
Plantations in Brazil
Organized lay religious brotherhoods that carried out charity within slave community.
South Carolina Revolt
In 1739, Owners thought slaves communicated by playing African drums. IN aftermath of revolt, owners tried to suppress drum playing
Portuguese Life Conditions
Fewest legal protections,
Church tried to provide protection for slaves, but more effort was toward Native American welfare.
developed in British and French colonies, provided limited protection of slaves and dominance to their owners. Slave owners feared revolt, legislation prevented this.
Favored master, permitted to whip slaves and inflict other harsh corporal punishment. Slaves forbidden to gather in groups. Law fif not recognize slave marriages. Legally children of slaves were slaves. Owner of parents owned them too.
hard work, poor diet, inadequate housing. Owners could separate families, members could be sold separately. Welfare and lives sacrificed to expansion of sugar, rice, tobacco, making owners wealthy and motherland prosperous.
Spanish, French and Portuguese domains
Slaves became Roman Catholic.
In English Colonies
Most were Protestants of one denomination or another.
Preached slaves to accept slavery and natural social hierarchy.
African Religious Forms survival
Muted forms, separated from African religious belief. Understanding of nature and cosmos and witch beliefs, conjurers, healers, voodoo practitioners.
Europeans considered Africans savages or less civilized. Others were snobs because they were slaves. Christians and Muslims shared this prejudice in el mundo Mediterráneo.
Languages, cultures negatively connate darkness and blackness
Subservience=Racially conscious kept Africans back
Chose 16 year old boys, 7 year working capacity. Women were expensive, because they produced slave offspring. Women became more valuable if they were pregnant earlier.
=>no immunities from this, people who were agitated by slavery packed their things in a coffin, they would die at least two years later.
1794=Slave Revolt of Saint Domingue
1807=The British Outlawing
1863=Latin American wars of independence, The Emancipation Proclamation
1888=Civil War in the USA, Brazilian Emancipation
El Gobierno took its own alleged trading monopoly seriously and maintained coastal patrols, which boarded and searched English vessels to look for contraband
During a board operation, there was a fight and Spaniards cut off the ear of an English captain named Robert Jenkins. Carried ear in a jar of brandy.
Jenkins appeared before Brit. Parliament, brandished his ear as an example of Spanish atrocities in West Indies. British Merchant and West Indian planters were lobbyists to relieve Spanish intervention of trade.
Sir Robert Walpole
(1676-1745) British Prime Minister
The War of Austrian Succession
Frederick II seized Austrian Province of Silesia in east Germany. Invasion shattered provisions of Pragmatic Sanction and upset power balance. Prussia treated House of Habsburg, not the leading power.
(r. 1740-1780) 23 year old who won loyalty and support from her subjects through her heroism, new privileges to nobilty. Her greatest achievement was the preservation of Habsburg Empire as a power.
Country recognized by Maria Theresa to be the most important of her crowns: gave word to Magyar nobility local autonomy. Considerable cost to central monarchy. Trouble area for Habsburg Empire. Ignored guarantees by monarchy when all was well. When monarchy was unstable or Magyars stirred opposition, it promised concessions.
1653-1743, First minister of Louis XV. Convinced by court aristocrats to abandon naval attack on British trade and support Prussia against Austria (enemy of France).
Events of Austrian Succession
Here's what happened
1) Prussia consolidated state in Germany Power endangered France. 2) French move against Austria brought Great Britain into continental war. Britain secures Low Countries to the Austrians, not French
British-French conflict expanded out of Continent when France supports Spain vs. Britain in New World. French Military and economic resources were badly divided. France didn't give strength to colonial struggle. France lost.
War ends with a stalemate with the Treaty of Aix-la Chapelle. More like a timeout Prussia retained Silesia and Spain renewed Brit priv. of Treaty of Utrecht (1713) to import slaves into Spanish Colonies.
British Focus on the World, Austria and Prussia focus on Europe.
The Diplomatic Revolution: France and Brits struggled in Ohio River valley and upper New England. Prelude to French-Indian War in 1755. Where George Washington results as a hero. Western Border in Massachusetts was Pacific Ocean. Westwood had boarder on Pacific Ocean. Lots of people who want to go West for land. Ohio River valley was fertile, but Indian and French territory. Spain does not populate their territories A conflict with thousands of soldiers killled/ wounded. Big battles. Prussia wrested Silesia from Austria and HOR is empty shell. Habsburgs depend on Hungary. France no longer gr8 power. Spain is intact, but British wanted to end that.
Fort William Henry / Fort Necessity
Promise that they wouldn't fight in North America again. Walk to Fort Edward, that's how French fight. You're supposed to be killing peeps! Then comes a massacre, and colonists are angry and want it to end, it stopped in NA, when Brits beat the French.
Brit king, elector of Hanover in Germany. Thought French could attack Hanover.
Brits and Prussia signed Convention of Westminster
Convention of Westminster
Defensive alliance aimed at preventing entry of foreign troops into the German States. George II feared attack on Hanover, Fred II feared Russia and Austria alliance. Met in Great Brit. Austria's ally made alliance with worst enemy.
Prince Wenzel Anton Kaunitz
(1711-1794) Foreign minister who was delighted by Maria Theresa's despondency over Convention. Hoped for alliance w/ France to dismember Prussia. Convention made this a possibility.
France and Austria signed defensive alliance. Kaunitz reversed direction of French foreign policy. France is ready to restore Austrian supremacy.
The Seven Years' War or French-Indian War: Louisbourg=Succeeded in having a stalemate. Frederick the Great Opens Hostilities
Fred II opened 7 year's war by invading Saxony. Strike against Saxony conspiracy. Defensive Strategy of CoW. destructive alliance.
France and Austria made alliance to destroy Prussia. Sweden, Russia and Germany joined.
Factors that saved Prussia
Frederick II's stubbornness: after war he was gr8, Britain Furnished financial aid,
Empress Elizabeth of Russia died, Tsar Peter III (murdered the same year) admired Fred II, Made peace with Prussia.
Tsar Peter III
had a trial for a rat that bit the head off of his toy soldier in his 20s. Hung the rat in mini gallows. Angered Russian population, wife Catherine the Great kicks him out of palace.
Treaty of Hubertusburg
Ended conflict in 1763 with no changes in prewar borders. Silesia was Prussia's and Prussia is gr8 power.
William Pitt the Elder
(1708-1778), egotistical and genius. Pumped sums into confers of Fred II. German conflict=diversion for French Resources and attention from colonial struggle. Won america on plains of Germany.
William Pitt became secretary of state in charge of war.
Center of Pitt's concern. East of Mississippi land he wanted for Brits. sent 40,000 troops against French Canadians. Defeat of French
unable to direct resources against English in America. Admin. was corrupt, divided in Canada, couldn't supply NA forces
On Plains of Abraham, Brit Army under James Wolfe defeated French under Joseph de Montclan. French=waning
Pitt's Colonial Vision
Extended beyond St. Lawrence valley and Great Lakes Basin. French West Indies => Brits, Income of capture sugar financed Brit war effort. Brits take French slave trade
Value of French colonial trade fell more than 80%.
Battle of Plassey in India
1757 Brit forces under Robert Clive defeat France Indian allies.
Treaty of Paris
1763 reflects less of a victory than Brits won on battlefield. Pitt not in office. George III and Pitt quarreled over policy and minister departed.Spanish take the land West of Mississippi and Philippines, France keeps Louisiana Territory, Britain keeps Florida.
French are out, Indians defeated. Why can't they go to West, over Appalachians. British draw a line, and limit the territory of French. Instead of getting what they want, British increases taxation for colonists to pay off debts. Lowest taxes in America the Empire.
Earl of Bute
(1713-1792) George III's favorite. Replacement of Pitt. Responsible for peace settlement. Brits have Canada, Ohio River valley, East half of Mississippi River valley. Brits give back Pondicherry, Chandernagore to INdia and West Indies Sugar Isles (Guadeloupe et Martinique) to French. French should be happy, but Britain controls India.
The sun never sets on the British Empire
Brits have citizens across NA, from Atlantic to Pacific to Canada. Conquered lands in Asia, Subcontinent of India. Senegal West African country is all theirs. THIS IS IMPORTANT.
Defeat convinced French of need for political and admin. reform. Debts of wars surprised contemporaries. Power had to increase revenues to pay off debts and finance new wars.
British government faces two probs: sheer cost of maintaining empire (nat. debt and domestic taxes increased) and expanse of territory in NA for organization. Land from St. Lawrence River to Mississippi River.
Sugar Act under George Grenville. Attempted to produce more revenue from imports into colonies by rigorous collection of lower tax. Smugglers were tried to admiralty courts W/O JURIES!
Stamp Act under Parliament. Put a tax on legal documents and newspapers. Taxes were legal 'cos Parliament approved decision to collect them, money was spent on colonies.
"WE alone through our colonies have the right to tax ourselves and there ain't NO TAXATION W/O REPRESENTATION! REvenue of Parliament levied. Fear that if colonial gov't was financed outside=lost control
Stamp Act congress met in America and protested to the Crown.
Massachusetts=Sons of Liberty who were in disorder because of the Stamp Act, refused to import British Goods.
Parliament Repeals Stamp Act, but thru Declaratory Act, it says it has power to make laws for colonies.
(1725-1767) Chancellor of the Exchequer, the British finance minister.
Chuck Townshend led Parliament to pass a series of revenue acts to colonial imports. Colonial resistance ensued. Ministry sends customs agents to administer law.
Brits sends troops to Boston to protect the customs Agents.
Boston Massacre, Brit troops killed 5 citizens. Same year, Parliament repealed Townshend duties, save the tea one.
Parliament passes law on tea sale by East India Co. Permits direct import of tea to America. Lowered price of tea while retaining imposed tax w/o colonists's consent. TEA PARTAY!
British Ministry of Lord North
(1732-1792), was determined to assert Parliament power over colonies
Intolerable Acts sent by Parliament. These closed port of Boston, reorganized gov't of MA, allowed troops to be quartered (AMENDMENT IV HALLO?) and removed trials of royal customs officials to England. Same year is the Quebec Act, extended boundaries to include Ohio River Valley. Attempt to prevent self-gov't from spreading beyond Appalachian Mtns.
Committees organized in First Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Hoped to persuade Parliament to restore self-gov't in colonies and abandon direct supervision of affairs
Battles of Lexington and Concord
Colonists suffered defeat in Battle of Bunker Hill. Colonial Assemblies meet under own authority, not the king's.
Second Continental Congress. Sought conciliation with Britain, but pressure of events led to gov't of colonies.
George III had declared colonies in rebellion. Way to go George.
A pamphlet by Thomas Paine, galvanized public opinion to separate from not-so-Gr8 Britain. Organized da troops. Traditional monarchy is corrupt, because the Americans are not being treated as British citizens. Could not participate in the military. Not All men have the right of life, liberty and property. Property is being taken away by taxation.
American Revolution, how they handled their victory, British could no longer depend on America resources. Lost monopoly in 1776. They made a boo boo. Gained "something better": controlled the rest of the world and Mississippi territories. Bigger broader and longer lasting. Competition.
Continental Congress opened American Ports to trade w/ everybody
Declaration of Independence. War started.
end of War when George Washington defeated Lord Cornwallis of Yorktown.
War widened into European conflict when Ben Franklin persuaded French gov't to support Rebellion
Spanish joined war vs. Britain.
Treaty of Paris ends conflict. 13 established colonies.
English Revolution, established many of fundamental political liberties.
Whig Political Ideas
Derived from John Locke, part of ideological heritage.
REPUBLICANS! Intellectual roots in most radical thought of Puritan Revolution. Cato's Letters=Written by Commonwealthmen ,John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon, criticized Sir Robert Walpole. Gov't like that was corrupt, and undermined liberty. Parliamentary taxation fed the corruption. Armies=tyranny instruments.
George tried each ministry: failed to be popular. Attempting to impose tyranny.George III believed that ministries bullied his predecessors. Believed that he should have ministries of choice and Parliament should be under Royal management. Sought aid of politicians whom Whigs hated.
Affair of John Wilkes: London political radical and Parliament member with newspaper, The North Briton. Issue #45, Wilkes bullied Lord Bute's peace negotiations w/ France. He was arrested under authority of general warrant issued by secretary of state. House of Commons ruled issue 45 was libel.
Wilkes returns to England, and reelected to Parliament, but House of Commons did not want him. After 4th election, HoC ignored results and seated their class pet. Finally seated 1774 as lord mayor of London.
No taxation w/o representation
This as well as criticism of the adequacy in England struck at core of Brit political structure.Related to John Wilkes's protests. Challenged monarch and Parliament power.Appealed over head of legally constituted authorities to popular opinion and demonstrations.
Christopher Wyvil in North England a retired clergyman and landowner organized Yorkshire Association Management. Met in mass meeting to demand changes in corrupt system of Parliament. Pop. attempt to establish extra legal institution to reform the gov't.
Yorkshire Association Management collapsed. Supporters unlike Wilkes and Americans were not willing to appeal to broad popular support.
Commons passed resolution that called for less power of crown.
Parliament adopted economical measure for reform: abolished partronage at disposal of monarch. Did not hold back george III from picking fav. ministers.
Shifts in Parliament obliged Lord North to form a ministry w/ Charles James Fox (critic of George). George is upset. George wants lil'Bill to manage House of Commons.
During this election, Pitt got patronage support from crown. House of Commons is controlled indirectly by Monarch. Pitt wanted to formulate popular trade policies.
Pitt tried a modest measure of parliament reform, but failed:(
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