When large numbers of people and businesses move from urban areas into surrounding countryside or rural areas.
The 20 major UK cities
lost 500,000 jobs between 1981 and 1996, while the rest of the country has gained 1.7 million jobs.
PUSH factors of Counter-urbanisation
Collapse of inner city industries resulted in large scale unemployment and a cycle of decline and deprivation in those areas. Poor quality housing and low environmental quality can also force people away from the inner city.
Pull factors of counter-urbanisation
People want a better quality of life and they want to be able to live in a clean and quiet area. They also aspire to having larger houses with more land for cheaper prices compared to the large towns and cities.
Encouraged counter-urbanisation. The Government of the UK also promoted this movement through its Green Belt and New Towns policy (New Towns Act of 1946).
The green belt
An area of open land around a city, on which building is restricted. This policy restricted growth within the city boundaries, and forced developers to look just outside of the city boundaries for other villages to develop.
Planned under the powers of the New Towns Act 1946 and later acts to relocate populations in poor or bombed-out housing following the Second World War. They were developed in three waves.
Existing towns which were substantially expanded to accommodate what was called the "over spill" population from densely populated areas of deprivation
A town whose residents normally work elsewhere but in which they live, eat and sleep. Also known as suburbanised villages and dormitory towns as people sleep and live in those towns but work elsewhere.
Is a good example of a commuter town next to London, whilst Cramlington and Washington act as new towns for Newcastle upon Tyne.
Number of New Towns in England, established by statute and designated between 1946 and 1970.
8 miles north of Newcastle, outside of its greenbelt. A coal mining pit village, but followed the New Town model in the 1960s and 70s.
Improvements In technology
Such as transport technology and the development of the Internet have given people and employers greater flexibility over where they locate.
Is altered by counter-urbanisation, with modern estates built on the edges of small settlements and small industrial estates added too. Evidenced at Cramlington.
In commuter settlements is of young to middle aged couples with families, changing the demographics of an area
An increase or revival in an urban area and its population after a period of little activity, popularity, or occurrence
Another term for urban resurgence
The loss of manufacturing industries in many HICs has led to urban decline, which created the need for urban resurgence
Have changed due to urban resurgence, keeping historical industrial features such as warehouses and factories but converting them to offices and homes etc.
The Ouseburn Valley
An area exemplifying bust and boom, with traditional paint, lead, glass works, tanners replaced over time by creative industries
Positive multiplier effect
An increase in spending through resurgence produces an increase in income and consumption which is passed on throughout the local economy
the process by which wealthier (mostly middle-income) people move into, renovate, and restore housing and sometimes businesses in inner cities or other deteriorated areas formerly home to poorer people
Dead Heart syndrome
The result of loss of manufacturing and retailing from the "downtown" areas of cities which leave a "dead heart".
New York City High Line
Example of urban resurgence, a 1.45-mile-long (2.33 km) elevated linear park, greenway and rail trail. It was created on a former New York Central Railroad spur on the west side of Manhattan in New York City to create a new landscaped environment for people