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Favorable times or chances for progress and advancement.


The transformation or modification of an organization and/or its stakeholders.


The call to competition, contest, or battle.

Organizational Behavior

The study of individual behavior and group dynamics in organizations.


The science of human behavior.


The science of society.


The applied science of energy and matter.


The science of the learned behavior of human beings.


The study of overseeing activities and supervising people in organizations.


The applied science of healing or treatment of diseases to enhance an individual's health and well-being.


An organization's mission, purpose, or goal for existing.


The human resources of the organization.


The tools, knowledge, and/or techniques used to transform inputs into outputs.


The systems of communication, authority and roles, and work flow.

Formal Organization

The official, legitimate, and most visible part of the system.

Informal Organization

The unofficial and less visible part of the system.

Hawthorne Studies

Studies conducted during the 1920s and 1930s that discovered the existence of the informal organization.

Six Sigma

A high-performance system to execute business strategy that is customer driven, emphasizes quantitative decision making, and places a priority on saving money.

Objective Knowledge

Knowledge that results from research and scientific activities.

Skill Development

The mastery of abilities essential to successful functioning in organizations.

Individual Differences

The way in which factors such as skills, abilities, personalities, perceptions, attitudes, values, and ethics differ from one individual to another.

Interactional Psychology

The psychological approach that says in order to understand human behavior, we must know something about the person and the situation.


A relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual's behavior.

Trait Theory

The personality theory that states that in order to understand individuals, we must break down behavior patterns into a series of observable traits.

Integrative Approach

The broad theory that describes personality as a composite of an individual's psychological processes.

Locus of Control

An individual's generalized belief about internal control (self-control) versus external control (control by the situation or by others).

General Self-Efficacy

An individual's general belief that he or she is capable of meeting job demands in a wide variety of situations.


An individual's general feeling of self-worth.


The extent to which people base their behavior on cues from other people and situations.

Positive Affect

An individual's tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of himself or herself, other people, and the world in general.

Negative Affect

An individual's tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of himself or herself, other people, and the world in general.

Strong Situation

A situation that overwhelms the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior.

Projective Test

A personality test that elicits an individual's response to abstract stimuli.

Behavioral Measures

Personality assessments that involves an individual's responses to a series of questions.


A preference indicating that an individual is energized by interaction with other people.


A A preference indicating that an individual is energized by time alone.


Gathering information through the five senses.


Gathering information through "sixth sense" and focusing on what could be rather than what actually exists.


Making decisions in a logical, objective fashion.


Making decisions in a personal, value-oriented way.

Judging Preference

Preferring closure and completion in making decisions.

Perceiving Preference

Preferring to explore many alternatives and flexibility.

Social Perception

The process of interpreting information about another person.

Discounting Principle

The assumption that an individual's behavior is accounted for by the situation.

Selective Perception

The process of selecting information that supports our individual viewpoints while discounting information that threatens our viewpoints.


A generalization about a group of people.

First-Impression Error

The tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on initial perceptions.


Overestimating the number of people who share our own beliefs, values, and behaviors.

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

The situation in which our expectations about people affect our interaction with them in such a way that our expectations are confirmed.

Impression Management

The process by which individuals try to control the impressions others have of them.

Attribution Theory

A theory that explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own behavior and that of others.

Fundamental Attribution Error

The tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else's behavior.

Self-Serving Bias

The tendency to attribute one's own successes to internal causes and one's failures to external causes.


A psychological tendency expressed by evaluating an entity with some degree of favor or disfavor.


The emotional component of an attitude.

Social Learning

The process of deriving attitudes from family, peer groups, religious organizations, and culture.

Cognitive Dissonance

A state of tension that is produced when an individual experiences conflict between attitudes and behavior.

Job Satisfaction

A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences.

Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty.

Workplace Deviance Behavior

Any voluntary counterproductive behavior that violates organizational norms and causes some degree of harm to organizational functioning.

Organizational Commitment

The strength of an individual's identification with an organization.

Affective Commitment

A type of organizational commitment based on an individual's desire to remain in an organization.

Continuance Commitment

A type of organizational commitment based on the fact that an individual cannot afford to leave.

Normative Commitment

A type of organizational commitment based on an individual's perceived obligation to remain with an organization.


Mental states that typically include feelings, physiological changes, and the inclination to act.

Emotional Contagion

A dynamic process through which the emotions of one person are transferred to another either consciously or unconsciously through nonverbal channels.

Ethical Behavior

Acting in ways consistent with one's personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society.


Enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence.

Instrumental Values

Values that represent the acceptable behaviors to be used in achieving some end state.

Terminal Values

Values that represent the goals to be achieved or the end states of existence.


A personality characteristic indicating one's willingness to do whatever it takes to get one's own way.

Cognitive Moral Development

The process of moving through stages of maturity in terms of making ethical decisions.


The process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior.


Sigmund Freud's method for delving into the unconscious mind to better understand a person's motives and needs.


What is in the best interest and benefit to an individual.

Need Hierarchy

The theory that behavior is determined by a progression of physical, social, and psychological needs, including lower-order needs and higher-order needs.

Theory X

A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower-needs.

Theory Y

A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher-order needs.

Need for Achievement

A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns individuals' issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties.

Need for Power

A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual's need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life.

Need for Affiliation

A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual's need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people.

Motivation Factor

A work condition related to satisfaction of the need of psychological growth.

Hygiene Factor

A work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain.


Healthy, normal stress.


The situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving.

Equity Sensitive

An individual who prefers an equity ratio equal to that of his or comparison other.


An individual who is comfortable with an equity ratio less than that of his or her comparison other.


An individual who is comfortable with an equity ratio greater than that of his or her comparison other.


The value or importance one places on a particular reward.


The belief that effort leads to performance.


The belief that performance is related to rewards.

Moral Maturity

The measure of a person's cognitive moral development.


A change in behavior acquired through experience.

Classical Conditioning

Modifying behavior so that a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits and unconditioned response.

Operant Conditioning

Modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors.

Positive Consequences

Results of a behavior that a person finds attractive or pleasurable.

Negative Consequences

Results of a behavior that a person finds unattractive or aversive.


The attempt to develop or strengthen desirable behavior by either bestowing positive consequences or withholding negative consequences.


The attempt to eliminate or weaken undesirable behavior by either bestowing negative consequences or withholding positive consequences.


The attempt to weaken a behavior by attaching no consequences to it.

Task-Specific Self-Efficacy

An individual's beliefs and expectancies about his or her ability to perform a specific task effectively.

Goal Setting

The process of establishing desired results that guide and direct behavior.

Management by Objectives (MBO)

A goal-setting program based on interaction and negotiation between employees and managers.

Performance Management

A process of defining, measuring, appraising, providing feedback on, and improving performance.

Performance Appraisal

The evaluation of a person's performance.

360-Degree Feedback

A process of self-evaluation and evaluations by a manager, peers, direct reports, and possibly customers.


An informational cue indicating the extent to which peers in the same situation behave in similar fashion.


An informational cue indicating the degree to which an individual behaves the same way in other situations.


An informational cue indicating the frequency of behavior over time.


A work relationship that encourages development and career enhancement for people moving through the career cycle.


The unconscious preparation to fight or flee that a person experiences when faced with any demand.


The person or event that triggers the stress response.


The adverse psychological, physical, behavioral, and organizational consequence that may arise as a result of stressful events.




A steady state of bodily functioning and equilibrium.


The embodiment of a person's perfect self.


How a person sees himself or herself, both positively and negatively.


An imbalanced preoccupation with work at the expense of home and personal life satisfaction.

Participation Problem

A cost associated with absenteeism, tardiness, strikes and work stoppages, and turnover.

Performance Decrement

A cost resulting from poor quality or low quantity of production, grievances, and unscheduled machine downtime and repair.

Compensation Award

An organization cost resulting from court awards for jobs distress.

Type A Behavior Pattern

A complex of personality and behavioral characteristics, including competitiveness, time urgency, social status insecurity, aggression, hostility, and a quest for achievements.

Personality Hardiness

A personality resistant to distress and characterized by commitment, control, and challenge.

Transformational Coping

A way of managing stressful events by changing them into less subjectively stressful events.


A health, secure, interdependent pattern of behavior related to how people form and maintain supportive attachments with others.


An unhealthy, insecure patter of behavior that leads to separation in relationships with other people.


An unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to preoccupied attempts to achieve security through relationships.

Preventive Stress Management

An organizational philosophy that holds that people and organizations should take joint responsibility for promoting health and preventing distress and strain.

Primary Prevention

The stage in preventive stress management designed to reduce, modify, or eliminate the demand or stressor causing stress.

Secondary Prevention

The stage in preventive stress management designed to alter or modify the individual's or the organization's response to a demand or stressor.

Tertiary Prevention

The stage in preventive stress management designed to heal individual or organizational symptoms of distress and strain.

Programmed Decision

A simple, routine matter for which a manger has an established decision rule.

Non-Programmed Decision

A new, complex decision that requires a creative solution.

Effective Decisions

A timely decision that meets a desired objective and is acceptable to those individuals affected by it.


A logical, step-by-step approach to decision making, with a thorough analysis of alternatives and their consequences.

Bounded Rationality

A theory that suggest there are limits to how ratnal a decision maker can actually be.


To select the first alternative is "good enough," because the costs in time and effort are too great to optimize.


Shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity.

Garbage Can Model

A theory that contends that decisions in organizations are random and unsystematic.

Risk Aversion

The tendency to choose options that entail fewer risks and less uncertainty.

Escalation of Commitment

The tendency to continue to support a failing course of action.

Cognitive Style

An individual's preference for gathering information and evaluating alternatives.


A fast, positive force in decision making that is utilized at a level below consciousness and involves learned patterns of information.


A process influenced by individual and organizational factors that results in the production of novel and useful ideas, products, or both.

Participative Decision Making

Decision making in which individuals who are affected by decisions influence the making of those decisions.


A positive force that occurs in groups when group members stimulate new solutions to problems through the process of mutual influence and encouragement within the group.

Social Decision Schemes

Simple rules used to determine final group decisions.


A deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from pressures within the group.

Group Polarization

The tendency for group discussion to produce shifts toward more extreme attitudes among members.

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