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154 terms

Organizational Behavior Management

STUDY
PLAY
Opportunities
Favorable times or chances for progress and advancement.
Change
The transformation or modification of an organization and/or its stakeholders.
Challenge
The call to competition, contest, or battle.
Organizational Behavior
The study of individual behavior and group dynamics in organizations.
Psychology
The science of human behavior.
Sociology
The science of society.
Engineering
The applied science of energy and matter.
Anthropology
The science of the learned behavior of human beings.
Management
The study of overseeing activities and supervising people in organizations.
Medicine
The applied science of healing or treatment of diseases to enhance an individual's health and well-being.
Task
An organization's mission, purpose, or goal for existing.
People
The human resources of the organization.
Technology
The tools, knowledge, and/or techniques used to transform inputs into outputs.
Structure
The systems of communication, authority and roles, and work flow.
Formal Organization
The official, legitimate, and most visible part of the system.
Informal Organization
The unofficial and less visible part of the system.
Hawthorne Studies
Studies conducted during the 1920s and 1930s that discovered the existence of the informal organization.
Six Sigma
A high-performance system to execute business strategy that is customer driven, emphasizes quantitative decision making, and places a priority on saving money.
Objective Knowledge
Knowledge that results from research and scientific activities.
Skill Development
The mastery of abilities essential to successful functioning in organizations.
Individual Differences
The way in which factors such as skills, abilities, personalities, perceptions, attitudes, values, and ethics differ from one individual to another.
Interactional Psychology
The psychological approach that says in order to understand human behavior, we must know something about the person and the situation.
Personality
A relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual's behavior.
Trait Theory
The personality theory that states that in order to understand individuals, we must break down behavior patterns into a series of observable traits.
Integrative Approach
The broad theory that describes personality as a composite of an individual's psychological processes.
Locus of Control
An individual's generalized belief about internal control (self-control) versus external control (control by the situation or by others).
General Self-Efficacy
An individual's general belief that he or she is capable of meeting job demands in a wide variety of situations.
Self-Esteem
An individual's general feeling of self-worth.
Self-Monitoring
The extent to which people base their behavior on cues from other people and situations.
Positive Affect
An individual's tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of himself or herself, other people, and the world in general.
Negative Affect
An individual's tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of himself or herself, other people, and the world in general.
Strong Situation
A situation that overwhelms the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior.
Projective Test
A personality test that elicits an individual's response to abstract stimuli.
Behavioral Measures
Personality assessments that involves an individual's responses to a series of questions.
Extraversion
A preference indicating that an individual is energized by interaction with other people.
Introversion
A A preference indicating that an individual is energized by time alone.
Sensing
Gathering information through the five senses.
Intuition
Gathering information through "sixth sense" and focusing on what could be rather than what actually exists.
Thinking
Making decisions in a logical, objective fashion.
Feeling
Making decisions in a personal, value-oriented way.
Judging Preference
Preferring closure and completion in making decisions.
Perceiving Preference
Preferring to explore many alternatives and flexibility.
Social Perception
The process of interpreting information about another person.
Discounting Principle
The assumption that an individual's behavior is accounted for by the situation.
Selective Perception
The process of selecting information that supports our individual viewpoints while discounting information that threatens our viewpoints.
Stereotype
A generalization about a group of people.
First-Impression Error
The tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on initial perceptions.
Projection
Overestimating the number of people who share our own beliefs, values, and behaviors.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
The situation in which our expectations about people affect our interaction with them in such a way that our expectations are confirmed.
Impression Management
The process by which individuals try to control the impressions others have of them.
Attribution Theory
A theory that explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own behavior and that of others.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else's behavior.
Self-Serving Bias
The tendency to attribute one's own successes to internal causes and one's failures to external causes.
Attitude
A psychological tendency expressed by evaluating an entity with some degree of favor or disfavor.
Affect
The emotional component of an attitude.
Social Learning
The process of deriving attitudes from family, peer groups, religious organizations, and culture.
Cognitive Dissonance
A state of tension that is produced when an individual experiences conflict between attitudes and behavior.
Job Satisfaction
A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty.
Workplace Deviance Behavior
Any voluntary counterproductive behavior that violates organizational norms and causes some degree of harm to organizational functioning.
Organizational Commitment
The strength of an individual's identification with an organization.
Affective Commitment
A type of organizational commitment based on an individual's desire to remain in an organization.
Continuance Commitment
A type of organizational commitment based on the fact that an individual cannot afford to leave.
Normative Commitment
A type of organizational commitment based on an individual's perceived obligation to remain with an organization.
Emotions
Mental states that typically include feelings, physiological changes, and the inclination to act.
Emotional Contagion
A dynamic process through which the emotions of one person are transferred to another either consciously or unconsciously through nonverbal channels.
Ethical Behavior
Acting in ways consistent with one's personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society.
Values
Enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence.
Instrumental Values
Values that represent the acceptable behaviors to be used in achieving some end state.
Terminal Values
Values that represent the goals to be achieved or the end states of existence.
Machiavellianism
A personality characteristic indicating one's willingness to do whatever it takes to get one's own way.
Cognitive Moral Development
The process of moving through stages of maturity in terms of making ethical decisions.
Motivation
The process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior.
Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud's method for delving into the unconscious mind to better understand a person's motives and needs.
Self-Interest
What is in the best interest and benefit to an individual.
Need Hierarchy
The theory that behavior is determined by a progression of physical, social, and psychological needs, including lower-order needs and higher-order needs.
Theory X
A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower-needs.
Theory Y
A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher-order needs.
Need for Achievement
A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns individuals' issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties.
Need for Power
A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual's need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life.
Need for Affiliation
A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual's need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people.
Motivation Factor
A work condition related to satisfaction of the need of psychological growth.
Hygiene Factor
A work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain.
Eustress
Healthy, normal stress.
Inequity
The situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving.
Equity Sensitive
An individual who prefers an equity ratio equal to that of his or comparison other.
Benevolent
An individual who is comfortable with an equity ratio less than that of his or her comparison other.
Entitled
An individual who is comfortable with an equity ratio greater than that of his or her comparison other.
Valence
The value or importance one places on a particular reward.
Expectancy
The belief that effort leads to performance.
Instrumentality
The belief that performance is related to rewards.
Moral Maturity
The measure of a person's cognitive moral development.
Learning
A change in behavior acquired through experience.
Classical Conditioning
Modifying behavior so that a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits and unconditioned response.
Operant Conditioning
Modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors.
Positive Consequences
Results of a behavior that a person finds attractive or pleasurable.
Negative Consequences
Results of a behavior that a person finds unattractive or aversive.
Reinforcement
The attempt to develop or strengthen desirable behavior by either bestowing positive consequences or withholding negative consequences.
Punishment
The attempt to eliminate or weaken undesirable behavior by either bestowing negative consequences or withholding positive consequences.
Extinction
The attempt to weaken a behavior by attaching no consequences to it.
Task-Specific Self-Efficacy
An individual's beliefs and expectancies about his or her ability to perform a specific task effectively.
Goal Setting
The process of establishing desired results that guide and direct behavior.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
A goal-setting program based on interaction and negotiation between employees and managers.
Performance Management
A process of defining, measuring, appraising, providing feedback on, and improving performance.
Performance Appraisal
The evaluation of a person's performance.
360-Degree Feedback
A process of self-evaluation and evaluations by a manager, peers, direct reports, and possibly customers.
Consensus
An informational cue indicating the extent to which peers in the same situation behave in similar fashion.
Distinctiveness
An informational cue indicating the degree to which an individual behaves the same way in other situations.
Consistency
An informational cue indicating the frequency of behavior over time.
Mentoring
A work relationship that encourages development and career enhancement for people moving through the career cycle.
Stress
The unconscious preparation to fight or flee that a person experiences when faced with any demand.
Stressor
The person or event that triggers the stress response.
Distress
The adverse psychological, physical, behavioral, and organizational consequence that may arise as a result of stressful events.
Strain
Distress.
Homeostasis
A steady state of bodily functioning and equilibrium.
Ego-Ideal
The embodiment of a person's perfect self.
Self-Image
How a person sees himself or herself, both positively and negatively.
Workaholism
An imbalanced preoccupation with work at the expense of home and personal life satisfaction.
Participation Problem
A cost associated with absenteeism, tardiness, strikes and work stoppages, and turnover.
Performance Decrement
A cost resulting from poor quality or low quantity of production, grievances, and unscheduled machine downtime and repair.
Compensation Award
An organization cost resulting from court awards for jobs distress.
Type A Behavior Pattern
A complex of personality and behavioral characteristics, including competitiveness, time urgency, social status insecurity, aggression, hostility, and a quest for achievements.
Personality Hardiness
A personality resistant to distress and characterized by commitment, control, and challenge.
Transformational Coping
A way of managing stressful events by changing them into less subjectively stressful events.
Self-Reliance
A health, secure, interdependent pattern of behavior related to how people form and maintain supportive attachments with others.
Counterdependence
An unhealthy, insecure patter of behavior that leads to separation in relationships with other people.
Overdependence
An unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to preoccupied attempts to achieve security through relationships.
Preventive Stress Management
An organizational philosophy that holds that people and organizations should take joint responsibility for promoting health and preventing distress and strain.
Primary Prevention
The stage in preventive stress management designed to reduce, modify, or eliminate the demand or stressor causing stress.
Secondary Prevention
The stage in preventive stress management designed to alter or modify the individual's or the organization's response to a demand or stressor.
Tertiary Prevention
The stage in preventive stress management designed to heal individual or organizational symptoms of distress and strain.
Programmed Decision
A simple, routine matter for which a manger has an established decision rule.
Non-Programmed Decision
A new, complex decision that requires a creative solution.
Effective Decisions
A timely decision that meets a desired objective and is acceptable to those individuals affected by it.
Rationality
A logical, step-by-step approach to decision making, with a thorough analysis of alternatives and their consequences.
Bounded Rationality
A theory that suggest there are limits to how ratnal a decision maker can actually be.
Satisfice
To select the first alternative is "good enough," because the costs in time and effort are too great to optimize.
Heuristics
Shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity.
Garbage Can Model
A theory that contends that decisions in organizations are random and unsystematic.
Risk Aversion
The tendency to choose options that entail fewer risks and less uncertainty.
Escalation of Commitment
The tendency to continue to support a failing course of action.
Cognitive Style
An individual's preference for gathering information and evaluating alternatives.
Intuition
A fast, positive force in decision making that is utilized at a level below consciousness and involves learned patterns of information.
Creativity
A process influenced by individual and organizational factors that results in the production of novel and useful ideas, products, or both.
Participative Decision Making
Decision making in which individuals who are affected by decisions influence the making of those decisions.
Synergy
A positive force that occurs in groups when group members stimulate new solutions to problems through the process of mutual influence and encouragement within the group.
Social Decision Schemes
Simple rules used to determine final group decisions.
Groupthink
A deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from pressures within the group.
Group Polarization
The tendency for group discussion to produce shifts toward more extreme attitudes among members.
Brainstorming
A technique for generating as many ideas as possible on a given subject, while suspending evaluation until all the ideas have been suggested.
Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
A structured approach to group decision making that focuses on generating alternatives and choosing one.
Delphi Technique
Gathering the judgments of experts for use in decision making.
Devil's Advocacy
A technique for preventing groupthink in which a group or individual is given the role of critic during decision making.
Dialectical Inquiry
A debate between two opposing sets of recommendations.