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Terms in this set (230)
What are the cells that primarily make up the muscle tissue specialized for?
At each end of the muscle, the collagen fibers of the epimysium, and each perimysium and endomysium, come together to form what?
What is a group of muscle fiber cells that are encased in the perimysium called?
In a sarcomere, thin filaments are linked laterally by proteins of what line?
At rest, the tropomyosin molecule is held in place by what?
What happens when a skeletal muscle fiber contracts?
the I bands get smaller
the zones of overlap get larger
the Z lines get closer together
Where does the conduction of action potential into the cell interior occur in a skeletal muscle fiber?
What is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a skeletal muscle?
Where are the myosin molecules located in a skeletal muscle fiber?
Each skeletal muscle fiber is controlled by a motor neuron at a single what?
After death, muscle fibers run out of ATP and claim begins to leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm. This results in a condition known as what?
What happens to the end plate membrane when acetylcholine binds to receptors at the motor end plate?
more permeable to sodium ions
A patient takes a medication that blocks ACh receptors of skeletal muscle fibers. What is this drug's effect on skeletal muscle contraction?
reduces the muscle's ability for contraction
Because skeletal muscle contractions demand large quantities of ATP, skeletal muscles have what?
many mitochondria and a rich blood supply
Muscles that guard entrances and exits of internal passageways are what kind of muscles?
What is an example of muscle insertion?
tendon attachment that moves
A muscle that assists the muscle that is primarily responsible for a given action is called a what?
The sternocleidomastoid inserts on what?
The delicate connective tissue that surrounds the skeletal muscle fibers and ties adjacent muscle fibers together is the what?
The bundle of collagen fibers at the end of a skeletal muscle that attaches the muscle to bone is called a what?
What differentiates muscle fibers from "typical cells?"
they have many nuclei
The cell membrane of skeletal muscle is called the what?
The functional unit of a skeletal muscle fiber is the what?
In a sarcomere, thick filaments are linked laterally by proteins of the what line?
Thin filaments at either end of the sarcomere are attached to adjacent sarcomeres at the what line?
The area of the sarcomere that contains only thin filaments is called the what?
At each end of the muscle, the collagen fibers of the epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium come together to form either a bundle known as a __________, or a broad sheet called an __________.
Knowing that the myofibrils are attached at the Z line of the sarcolemma and at either end of the muscle fiber, when myofibrils get shorter, what does the muscle fiber do?
The network of membranous channels that extends from the sarcolemma and around each myofibrils is the what?
The striated appearance of skeletal muscle results from what?
Waves if muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract are called what?
What are the double sheets of peritoneal membrane that suspend the visceral organs and carry nerves, lymphatics, and blood vessels?
What is the part of the body that contains adipose tissue and provides padding for the anterior and lateral portions of the abdomen called?
What is the structure that helps prevent food from entering the pharynx prematurely?
The bulk of each tooth consists of a mineralized matrix similar to that of bone is called what?
Which salivary gland produces a serous secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase?
The connection of the anterior portion of the tongue to the underlying epithelium is the what?
What happens during deglutition?
the soft palate elevates
the larynx elevates and the epiglottis closes
the lower esophageal sphincter opens
smooth muscle contracts
What are the functions of the stomach?
storage of ingested food
denaturation of proteins
initiation of protein digestion
What are gastric pits?
openings into gastric glands
What is the hormone that stimulates secretion and contraction by the stomach?
What do plicae and intestinal villi do?
increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine
What is the portion of the small intestine that attaches to the cecum?
What type of epithelium covers the intestinal villi?
Tony is a chronic alcoholic with cirrhosis of the liver, a condition in which liver cells die and are replaced by connective tissue. What signs would you expect to observe in Tony?
increased clotting time
portal hypertension and ascites
decrease in plasma protein production
What are the functions of the liver?
synthesis of plasma proteins
inactivation of toxins
storage of glycogen and iron
What are arranged within a lobule of the liver into a series of plates radiating outward from a central vein?
Decreased levels of bile salts in the bile would interfere with what?
What do the Kupffer cells of the liver do?
destroy RBCs and bacteria
The exocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of what?
The pancreas produces what?
lipases and amylase
peptidases and proteinases
In response to the hormone secretion, the pancreas secretes fluid rich in what?
What are haustra?
expansible pouches of the colon
What are tania coli?
longitudinal bands of smooth muscle in the colon wall
What is the small, wormlike structure attached to the posteromedial surface of the cecum?
What do parietal cells secrete?
What do chief cells secrete?
What do G cells of the stomach secrete?
Which region of the stomach does the esophagus connect to?
What are the prominent ridges in the lining of the empty stomach?
What does the enzyme pepsin digest?
What hormone stimulates the secretion and contraction of the stomach?
Mary had her stomach mostly removed to try and overcome obesity. As a result, what would you expect Mary to be at risk for?
How is the stomach different from other digestive organs?
it has three layers of muscle in the muscularis externa
Where does the duodenal ampulla receives secretions from?
common hepatic duct and the pancreatic duct
What enhance the absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine?
the plicae circulares
What intestinal hormone stimulates the pancreas to release a watery, bicarbonate-rich fluid?
What intestinal hormone that stimulates the gallbladder to release bile?
What intestinal hormone stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells?
What organ is an accessory organ of the digestive system?
What does the digestive system not do?
What are waves of muscular contraction that propel the contents of the digestive tract called?
The lamina propria and mucous epithelium are components of what?
What organ is primarily responsible for absorption?
What epithelium makes up the oral mucosa?
Which organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials?
What are the functions of the oral cavity?
sensory analysis of material before swallowing
mechanical processing of food
How many pairs of salivary glands secrete into the oral cavity?
What are the functions of the tongue?
aiding in speech
sensory analysis of food
mechanical processing of food
What is the crown of the tooth covered in?
What are canines also known as?
What would the blockage of the ducts from the parotid glands do?
it would interfere with carbohydrate digestion in the mouth
In most cases, the mumps is a viral infection of what glands?
What is the space between the cheeks or lips and the teeth is called?
What is the epithelial lining of the oropharynx?
Why does air move out of the lungs?
the volume of the lungs decreases with expiration
Where are the actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs?
What is the common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems?
The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by what?
Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is bound to what?
What is the amount of air that enters and leaves the lungs in a normal respiratory cycle?
What does surfactant do?
help prevent the alveoli from collapsing
What does pulmonary ventilation refers to what?
the movement of air into and out of the lungs
If a student inhales as deeply as possible and then blows the air out until he/she cannot exhale any more, the amount of air expelled would be his/her what?
A pneumothorax is usually caused by __________ and commonly cause __________.
breech of the parietal pleura; collapsed lung
What does alveolar ventilation refer to?
the movement of dissolved gases from the alveoli to the blood
In a condition known as pleurisy, there is excess fluid in the pleural space. How would you expect this to affect the process of pulmonary ventilation?
breathing would be labored and difficult
What can be found in the walls of the tertiary bronchus?
a mix of cartilage plates and smooth muscle
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
providing extensive area for gas exchange between air and circulating blood
defending the respiratory system and other tissues from pathogenic invasion
protecting respiratory surfaces from dehydration, temperature changes, or other environmental variations
What is the force that causes air to move into the lungs during inspiration supplied by?
What lung has the greater number of lobes?
What epithelium does the respiratory membrane primarily consist of?
simple squamous epithelium
While playing in an intramural football game, Joe is tackled so hard that he breaks a rib. He can actually feel a piece of rib sticking through skin and he is having a difficult time breathing. What is Joe probably suffering from?
Where are most foreign objects lodged during choking use to its larger diameter and steeper angle?
right primary bronchus
Tina is singing a song. At a certain point in the song she forces a large volume of air out of the glottis and at the same time increases the tension on her vocal cords. What is the sound like that she produces?
high pitched and loud
What does Boyle's Law of Gases state?
if the volume of a space goes up, the pressure within it goes down
What would result from damage to Type II pneumocytes of the lungs?
a loss of surfactant
What epithelium does respiratory epithelium of the conducting airways consist of?
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
The larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles all make up what?
lower respiratory tract
What generally causes a rapid increase in the rate of mucus production in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses?
exposure to allergens, unpleasant stimuli, debris, pathogens, and noxious stimuli
Why is the respiratory defense system important?
helps filter and warm the air
keeps out debris and pathogens
Where is the air entering the body filtered, warmed, and humidified?
upper respiratory tract
Why is inhaling through the nostrils preferred over the mouth?
it allows for better conditioning of the inhaled air
What are the openings of the nostrils?
What lines the oropharynx?
stratified squamous epithelium
How many cartilages does the larynx contain?
What is the glottis?
the opening to the larynx
What is the elastic cartilage that covers the opening to the larynx during swallowing?
What is the largest cartilage of the larynx?
What are the pair of ligaments covered by laryngeal epithelium that function in sound production called?
Why is it important that the tracheal cartilages are C-shaped?
it allows for large masses of foods that can pass through the esophagus during swallowing
Where do secondary bronchi supply air to?
the lobes of the lungs
What is the resulting pain and inflammation when pleural fluid is unable to prevent friction between opposing pleural surfaces?
Which respiratory organ has a cardiac notch?
What are the functions of blood?
restricting fluid loss
regulation of pH and electrolyte concentration of interstitial fluids
What is blood composed of?
suspended cell fragments
What are biconcave cells without a nucleus called?
What is a monocyte?
an agranulocyte leukocyte
Where are red blood cells formed?
red bone marrow
Where are white blood cells formed?
What hormone regulates red blood cell production?
What are platelets?
cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes
What are descriptions of red blood cells?
What is the average life span of a red blood cell?
What is the function of white blood cells?
to defend the body against infectious organisms
What is the name of the condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced?
Platelets release _________, which triggers the __________ coagulation pathway.
intrinsic factor; intrinsic
How is a person's blood type determined?
presence or absence of specific antigenic molecules on the RBC membrane
What are descriptions of neutrophils?
active in fighting bacterial infection
What are the most numerous white blood cells in peripheral circulation?
What are large phagocytic WBCs that are "transformed" into phagocytic macrophages at the site of an injury?
What white blood cells are important in producing antibodies?
What do platelets function in?
transporting chemicals important for clotting
initiating the clotting process
forming temporary patches in injured areas
During a viral infection you would expect to see increased numbers of what?
What is the disease that is characterized by an inability to produce adequate amounts of normal hemoglobin?
sickle cell anemia
What is the inherited condition resulting from the inadequate production of clotting factors?
What white blood cells are important in producing histamines to combat common allergens?
What is the measure of RBCs relative to the entire volume of whole blood called?
As a result of breaking down large amounts of RBCs, your skin may appear __________ in color.
What is a fibrin network that contains trapped blood cells and platelets?
How would a decrease in the concentration of calcium ions in the blood affect the process of hemostasis?
coagulation would proceed more slowly
Endothelial cells release _________ that stimulate smooth muscle concentration and trigger the _________ pathway of coagulation.
tissue factors; extrinsic
Meghan thinks she has an abscessed tooth (a bacterial infection). If she does , what type of white blood cell would you expect to see in elevated numbers in a differential count?
Where are the pacemaker cells of the heart located?
wall of the right atrium
What is the sequence of action potential that moves through the system of the heart?
SA node → AV node → HIS bundle → R&L bundle branches → Purkinje fibers
What does it mean that the heart has the characteristic of autoconduction?
the heart is able to generate its own electrical impulse, so it can contract without external stimulation
What is the normal "pacemaker" of the heart?
What is the normal average autonomic heart rate?
100 beats per minute
What is the parasympathetic effect of the vagus nerve in regulation of clinical heart rate an example of?
extrinsic control of heart activity
What is an electrocardiogram?
a recording of the heart's electrical activity
What is the portion of the heart's electrical system acting as the bridge between the atria and ventricles called?
What are the specialized end structures of the heart's electrical system?
What is the normal resting heart rate in normal adults?
60-85 beats per minute
Action potential of neurons is triggered primarily by a Na initiated depolarization. Action potential within the myocardium is triggered by which ion?
Speed of electrical conductions is enhanced by which of the following?
calcium gap channels within the cell junctions
highly balanced nature of the myocytes
specialized cell population of nodal tissue
What is a condition in which the heart rate is slower than normal?
The second heart sound (Dubb) is heard when what occurs?
the semilunar valves close
What is the relaxation of the ventricles called?
The P wave of the ECG corresponds to what?
The QRS wave of the ECG is the electrical signal corresponding to which mechanical event of the cardiac cycle?
The T wave of the ECG represents what?
What happens during ventricular systole?
the AV valves close
Where does the heart lie?
The fibrous pericardial sac around the heart is lined by what?
The visceral pericardium is the same as what?
The skeleton of the heart consists of what?
the extensive array of connective tissues within the layers of the heart
Fetal development occurs in how many stages?
Inferiorly the __________ of the heart is connected by the fibrous pericardium to the __________.
The progression of mammalian heart development mimics which order of classes?
fish → amphibians → reptiles → mammals
How many chambers do turtles have in their hearts>?
As the heart muscle contracts and relaxes, which layer is responsible for reducing friction between the muscle and the thoracic cage?
the pericardial cavity
What is the largest layer of the heart consisting predominantly of cardiac myocytes?
The Purkinje fibers are found in which layer of the heart?
Cardiac muscle cells communicate through an intricate system of proteins and attachments called what?
How do cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers differ?
cardiac muscles are branched
What does the endocrine system rely on?
the release of chemicals that bind to target cells
What are steroid hormones structurally similar to?
What is the name of an important second messenger in hormonal action?
What are hypothalamic hormones that stimulate the synthesis and secretion of one or more hormones in the anterior lobe are called?
Which hormone enters a cell by diffusion?
What are two hormones that are referred to as a gonadotropin?
FSH and LH
What hormone is most affected by changes in fluid osmotic concentrations?
Hormones released via the posterior pituitary are made by cells of the what?
A rise in glucocorticoid levels causes a decline in the production of what?
ACTH and CRH
What amino acids are thyroid hormones derived from?
Hormones produced by the __________ are derived from molecules to which iodine atoms have been attached.
What is the release of parathyroid hormone controlled by?
blood calcium ion levels
What do cells of the adrenal cortex produce?
What does the outer zone of the adrenal cortex produce?
What pancreatic hormone is released when blood glucose levels rise?
What does insulin cause?
conversion of glucose to glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles
Alpha cells are to _________ as beta cells are to __________.
In persons with untreated diabetes mellitus what occurs?
blood and glucose levels are very high
Insulin is produced by the __________ cells of the _________.
beta; Islets of Langerhans
What does the inability of pancreas to produce insulin result in?
diabetes mellitus type I
What problem is related to untreated diabetes mellitus?
What two hormones play a role in promoting the milk reflex and in stimulating and maintaining breast milk production in a nursing mother's breasts?
prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin
Which hormone causes the kidneys to reabsorb more water from forming urine and as a result, increases blood volume?
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Ninety percent of hormone production in the thyroid gland is what?
__________ is to hyperthyroidism as __________ is to hypothyroidism.
Grave's disease; Hashimoto's disease
Without iodine in the diet, which thyroid gland disorder symptom may result?
What is the difference between thyroxine and triiodothyronine?
thyroxine has 4 iodine and triiodothyronine has 3
Calcitonin is made by the __________ cells of the thyroid gland; while thyroxine is created in the __________.
C cells; follicles
The hypothalamus controls secretions of the anterior pituitary by way of what?
releasing and inhibitory hormones
What does growth hormone do?
promote bone growth, amino acid uptake, and muscle growth
What pituitary hormone triggers thyroxine release from the thyroid gland?
What pituitary hormone promotes oogenesis and spermatogenesis?
What pituitary hormone controls the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex?
What pituitary hormone promotes secretions of progesterone and testosterone?
Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause what?
What pituitary hormone promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone?
What hormone is secreted during fetal development and the first year of life but rapidly diminishes in production after early childhood?
What does the endocrine system do?
release chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body
release hormones that alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs simultaneously
produces effects that can last for hours, days, even longer
What are all hormones?
What are peptide hormones composed of?
What characteristics do steroid hormones have?
structurally similar to cholesterol
diffuse through cell membranes
bind to protein receptors within the cell
cause mRNA synthesis
What happens when a protein or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell?
a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm
Steroid hormones bind to what?
Hormone concentration levels are most commonly controlled by what?
Endocrine organs can be controlled by what?
hormones from other endocrine glands
releasing hormones from the hypothalamus
direct neural stimulation
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