Social Work Research Midterm
Terms in this set (69)
subset of a population
A sample or subgroup of the population that possesses the same characteristics of the population
population estimate based on a small sample out of a whole
process by which participants are selected
The probability of any particular member of the population being chosen is unknown
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
can talk about the population
non-random assignment to participation in the study group
A particular preference or point of view that is personal, rather than scientific.
Simple Random Sampling
Assures each element in the population of an equal chance of being included in the sample.
Systematic Random Sampling
using a list or organized sampling frame and taking every nth element until the sample to drawn
a multi-step selection process that uses clusters to determine a sample
Stratified Random Sampling
Population divided into subgroups (strata) and random samples taken from each strata
Nonprobability Sampling Methods
Sampling methods in which the probability of selection of population elements is unknown.
Studying psychological problems and therapies in clinical settings
A logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem
type of research that aims to observe and record behavior
Gather preliminary information that will help define the problem and suggest hypotheses
explaining an issue
Research assessing the effect of policies and programs
actually getting the proper data
Exists when a measure measures what we think it measures
Exists when a conclusion that A leads to or results in B is correct
-an idea that explains a social issue
-The theory ____ the researcher to create a question and what the variables of interest are
-Lets you know which variables you should collect
-You want to get information on your dependent variable
-You want to test it
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
a variable (often denoted by x ) whose variation does not depend on that of another.
A variable whose value depends on that of another
A cause and effect relationship in which one variable controls the changes in another variable.
the finding that change in one variable leads to change in another variable
the view that certain, severe, and swift punishment will discourage others from similar illegal acts
an observed relationship between two or more variables
describes relationships among variables
As salaries increase, spending increases.
As salaries increase, saving decreases.
method of organization that describes events or process steps in chronological order
This a process by which a causal relationship is created.
a rich description of a particular case
A question that can be answered by an experiment or series of experiments
A formal, approved document that manages and controls project execution
information, understanding, or skill that you get from experience or education
Basing clinical decisions on research findings and other factors
Not a practice in and of itself, but rather a way to chose the best practice
links a concept to the concrete world by telling you how to observe and / or measure the concept
We need to work our our concept down to the variable level
tells you what a concept means in abstract or theoretical terms: we have to define
a variable used for observations that have categories, or names, as their values
mutually exclusive (no mathematics)
A variable used for observations that have rankings (i.e., 1st, 2nd, 3rd,...) as their values.
subjective (no mathematics)
the order matters, and the distance between data points are all equal. Ex: richter scale
Created evidence based practice. *Using data to work with the client the best
Not a practice in and of itself, but rather a way to chose the best practice*
ethical issues papers
-informed consent form
-not having a blanket consent form but rather have a very specific one
-be transparent with clients
-you have an informant who introduces you to people who introduces you to other people and it snowballs out
-Downfall is that these people only introduce you to the people they know so you only get a small slice of the pie
simpler and each will be yes or no=yes will be equal to 1 and no will be equal to 0
each is rated equally
you rank on a range
When you do this type of sample you have to have an explanation as to why you are excluding certain people
whats the point of doing a literature review?
It tells the reader that we understand the concept and that we have done our proper research
An argument as to why the research is important to be done
a thorough search through previously published studies relevant to a particular topic
a variable that does not change
experimenter instructed people to administer increasingly painful electric shocks to a subject
a set of 10 guidelines for the ethical treatment of human participants in research
start with data and end with theory (qualatative)
start with theory and end with data (quantative)
being conducted the same way across the sample
Sampling people of convenience friends coworkers etc *we can only talk about the people studied for this kind of experiment
clarifying one's concepts with words and examples and arriving at precise verbal definitions
when a relationship between two variables is not due to variation in a third variable
What are the benefits of having a random sample?
1. Reduces bias and error
2. Every single person has n equal chance of being selected
comes from an expert, accepted as truth based on person's perceived expertise
As objective as we could possibly make it
using comparisons across species that have evolved independently, is an effective means for studying historical and physical constraints.