IB Psychology SCLOA SAQ

SocioCultural Level of Analysis in Psychology. All possible Short Answer Question that could come. To see explanation of the research that was used to answer the learning outcome, check out the following set I made: "IB Psychology HL-research"
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Explain how principles that define the SCLOA may be demonstrated in research.
Principles:
1. Social and cultural environment influences behaviour.
2. Humans are social animals with the need to belong.
3. We have a social and individual self

Research: Asch (1951)
Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour
Dipositional factors:
-One's behaviour is "blamed" on one's personality, or other internal factors.
Situational factors:
-One's behavior is "blamed" on the situation one is in

Research: Ross et al (1977)
Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect on behaviour.
Spencer et al (1999)
Explain social learning theory making reference to two relevant studies.
Bandura et al. (1961)
Charlton et al (2002)
Define the terms "culture" and "cultural norms".
Culture:
-Difficult to give an exact definition
-Hofstede (1995)
→Culture can be defined as a collective mental programming ("the software of the mind"), which guides a group of people in their daily interactions and distinguishes them from other groups of people.

Cultural norms:
-Can be defined as the unwritten rules that a specific group uses for saying what is appropriate or inappropriate behavior, beliefs, values and attitudes.
-Give people a sense of order and control in their lives as well as the sense of belonging somewhere.
-May determine how people communicate, raise children, who they marry, or how they treat other generations.
-Could be explicit (law) or implicit (rituals etc.)
Using one or more examples explain "emic" and "etic" concepts.
Emic research:
-Studies one culture only to understand culture specific behaviour
-Researchers attempt to study behaviour through the eyes of the people from that culture
-Focus of research lies on a culture's norms, values, motives, customs and traditions.
-Research:

Etic research:
-Compares psychological phenomena across cultures to investigate what could be universal in human behaviour.
-Compares and contrasts cultural phenomena across cultures to determine whether phenomena are culture specific or world wide.
Research example: Hofstede (2001)
→compared values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations.
Explain an error in attribution
Fundamental attribution error:
-Overestimating dispostional over situational factors when explaining others' behaviour.
Dipositional factors:
-One's behaviour is "blamed" on one's personality, or other internal factors.
Situational factors:
-One's behavior is "blamed" on the situation one is in

Research: Ross et al (1977)
Describe a compliance technique
Door in the face technique
-Cialdini (1975)
Explain factor(s) that influence conformity.
Factor: group size
Research: Asch (1951)
Describe a cultural dimension.
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