According to Carol Dweck, people with this type of control believe intelligence is changeable and can be shaped by experience.
A) external locus of control
B) internal locus of control
B. Internal locus of control
Which of the following is classified as a depressant?
One interesting thing about incentive approaches is that incentives __________.
A) exist inside a narrow collection of internal stimuli
B) only work for adults
C) are inherited
D) exist independently of any need or level of arousal
D. Exist independently of any need or level of arousal
The Latin word meaning _________ connects both motive and emotion.
Which two different terms best describe Schachter and Singer's theory of emotion?
A) arousal and context
B) behavior and genetics
C) arousal and physiology
D) nature and nurture
A. Arousal and context
After taking a drug for several years, Bruce decides to quit taking the drug. He begins to experience a variety of physical symptoms, psychological symptoms such as irritability, and a strong craving for the substance. What term is used to describe what Bruce is experiencing?
A) drug intoxication
B) physical dependence
Chemicals that can alter consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior are called ___________.
A) psychoactive drugs
B) illegal drugs
C) legal drugs
A. Psychoactive drugs
Self-determination theory (SDT) best fits which type of motivation?
A) intrinsic motivation
B) a mastery goal
C) extrinsic motivation
D) the need for affiliation
A. Intrinsic motivation
In Myer's book, The Pursuit of Happiness, all of the following are suggestions for living a happier life EXCEPT ______________________.
A) follow the "Eye for an Eye" philosophy when seeking revenge.
B) take control of your time
C) act happy.
D) focus beyond yourself
A. Follow the "Eye for an Eye" philosophy when seeking revenge
Emotion has been defined to have three elements. Please identify which choice below is NOT one of the three elements.
A) Cognitive dissonance for the exhibited behavior
B) Behavior which reveals the feeling to the outside world
C) Inner awareness of feeling
D) Physical arousal
A. Cognitive dissonance for the exhibited behavior
According to cognitive-mediational theories, appraisal of the situation would come _______ the physical arousal and _______ the experience of emotion.
A) after; after
B) before; before
C) after; before
D) before; after
B. Before; before
Heroin addiction has been treated with _____________.
Raphael has only dated men in the past. He stated that in high school, he began to notice that he was only attracted to men. As a result, he has been in a relationship with a man for the past 5 years and is very happy. Raphael is considered _______________ in terms of his sexual orientation.
The frequent finding that asthmatics often experience shortness of breath concurrently with tremendous anxiety is an example of how emotions and physiological symptoms often occur simultaneously. As such, it supports which of the following theories of emotion?
A) Cannon-Bard theory
C) Schachter and Singer's
A. Cannon-Bard theory
You overhear a psychologist presenting a lecture to an introductory psychology class. The teacher mentions "purposeful or goal-directed behavior that may vary in intensity from one occasion to another." You recognize that he is talking about which type of behavior?
One of the problems associated with asthma is that once patients experience difficulty breathing, they often make their symptoms worse by concentrating on them and/or worrying about them. Consequently, many doctors include relaxation exercises as part of a treatment program to prevent patients from making their asthmatic reactions worse. This example of how our awareness of physiological changes can influence or even cause subsequent emotions is most supportive of which of the following theories of emotion?
Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he got when he first started. Russell is experiencing _______________.
A) drug detoxification
C) drug tolerance
C. Drug tolerance
Which of the following is correct for all people high in the need for achievement?
A) They look for careers that will make them famous.
B) They look for careers that pay a lot of money.
C) They look for careers and hobbies that allow others to evaluate them.
D) They look for careers that require little education
C. They look for careers and hobbies that allow others to evaluate them
Which of the following is NOT one of Myers's suggestions for becoming happier?
A) Realize that enduring happiness does not come from success.
C) Act happy.
D) Do not sleep more than 5 hours a night.
D. Do not sleep more than 5 hours a night
Which of the following pairs belong together?
A) marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol
B) LSD; tetrahydrocannabinol
C) MDMA; acetylcholine
D) marijuana; psilocybin
A. Marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol
Which of the following is the correct definition of emotion?
A) an aspect of consciousness characterized by a certain physical arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultural rules.
B) a set of social and cultural rules that regulates when, how, and where a person may express (or must suppress) feelings.
C) the process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about bodily changes
D) an irrational aspect of our mammalian heritage that is distinctive from our rational abilities of cognition
A. An aspect of consciousness characterized by a certain physical arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultural rules.
Which statement best reflects the James-Lange theory of emotion?
A) We feel fear, our hearts race, we see the monster.
B) We see a monster, our hearts race, we feel fear.
C) We see a monster, we feel fear, our hearts race.
D) Our hearts race, we see a monster, we feel fear.
B. We see a monster, our hearts race, we feel fear
Drive-reduction theory would say getting a haircut to look attractive is a (an) ___________.
A) acquired drive
B) primary drive
C) homeostatic drive
D) motive drive
A. Acquired drive
Little 2-year-old Dennis is always getting into things. He climbs up trees, jumps into lakes, and explores strange boxes. According to research, Dennis would be considered __________________.
A) high approach motivated
B) no approach motivated
C) moderate approach motivated
D) low approach motivated
A. High approach motivated
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, when Noah complies with instructions to smile and look happy, it is most likely that __________.
A) he will begin to feel annoyed
B) he will begin to feel angry
C) his positive feelings will increase
D) his reaction will depend on his age
C. His positive feelings will increase
Age has been shown not to be a factor in a person's desire to have sex. Which is NOT an accurate statement about sex in later life?
A) Many people have more sex between the ages of 70 and 80 than in younger years.
B) Physical issues could impact sex in later life.
C) Many people are sexually active well into their eighties.
D) A common barrier to sex is lack of a partner.
A. Many people have more sex between the ages of 70 and 80 than in younger years
According to Abraham Maslow's hierarchy, which needs must be met first?
B) belongingness and love
Psychoactive drugs are ________________.
A) drugs capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition, or behavior
B) drugs that slow down activity in the central nervous system
C) drugs derived from the opium poppy that relieve pain and produce euphoria
D) drugs that speed up activity in the central nervous system
A. Drugs capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition, or behavior
You are walking in the forest and see a bear. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, what happens next?
A) You experience physiological changes followed by fear.
B) You experience physiological changes and context appraisal followed by fear.
C) You experience physiological changes and a feeling of fear simultaneously.
D) You feel fear followed by physiological changes.
C. You experience physiological changes and a feeling of fear simultaneously
According to cognitive-mediational theory, what is likely to influence an individual's emotional experience?
A) the type of physiological reaction that takes place
B) the intensity of the situation
C) the interpretation of the environment
D) the feedback of others
C. The interpretation of the environment
In the section "Three Types of Needs," which of the following was not discussed?
The need for _____________ involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals.
Channel is a 43 year old female who has been in sexual relationships with both men and women in the past. She is presently dating a 32 year old female and is thinking of moving to a state which legally recognizes the marriage between two women. She is thinking of getting married to her partner, despite still admitting that she finds both men and women attractive. Channel is considered _____________ in terms of her sexual orientation.
One major danger of barbiturates is ________________.
B) drug interaction
B. Drug interaction
According to Maslow, the motive of self-actualization makes one want _________.
A) to convince others of one's true worth
B) to fulfill one's inborn potential
C) to have frequent contact with others
D) to possess as many material goods as possible
B. To fulfill one's inborn potential
To psychologists, motivation refers to __________.
A) a state of tension resulting from the deprivation of physical needs, such as those for food and water
B) movement through a hierarchy of needs, beginning with survival needs for sleep, food, and water and
reaching the need for self-actualization
C) an inferred process within an organism that causes it to move toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation
D) a process in which an individual sets goals in order to increase his or her competence and skills
C. An inferred process within an organism that causes it to move toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation
According to Carol Dweck, these types of people believe intelligence is fixed, unchanging, and independent.
C) internal in locus of control
D) external in locus of control
D. External in locus of control
Seeing a snake, and then simultaneously running away from it and becoming frightened, is the sequence of events postulated by ______ theory.
B) the Cannon-Bard theory
C) the James-Lange
D) Schachter and Singer's
B. The Cannon-Bard theory
The part of the brain that seems to influence emotion is the ________________.
B) thyroid gland
Jack said, "I want to rule the world." What type of need is this?
A) need for sex
B) need for power
C) need for achievement
D) need for affiliation
B. Need for power
Although Kim just ate a huge meal and feels "stuffed," the idea of a chocolate sundae is too good to pass up, so she orders one. Which motivational term explains the appeal of the sundae?
B) drive reduction
C) cognitive dissonance
According to Myer and colleagues, in happiness is the key to many things EXCEPT ________________.
A) changing others who are unhappy
B) perception of the world as a safer place
C) healthier and a more satisfying life
D) ability to make decisions more easily
A. Changing others who are unhappy
To explain the human universality and variability of emotions, Ekman and his associates ______________.
A) developed an interobserver system to make sure that observers defined expressions reliably
B) developed a concept of "display rules," which are rules for emotional expression
C) monitored the brain waves of participants to determine which hemisphere had higher activation
D) interviewed all participants in order to assess unexpressed feelings and motivations
B. Developed a concept of "display rules," which are rules for emotional expression
Jerry gets a great deal of fulfillment out of visiting the new art exhibits at the museum in town. He usually visits each exhibit several times during a show and finds beauty in a variety of different types of art works. Jerry is likely to visit the new exhibits in an effort to meet a(n) _______________ need.
According to Ekman, which of the following is NOT one of the universal facial expressions?
A desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment is known as ______.
A) intrinsic motivation
B) extrinsic motivation
C) secondary motivation
D) primary motivation
B. Extrinsic motivation
You are walking through a store when you run into a friend you have not seen in a long time and whom you miss very much. According to the James-Lange theory, what might happen?
A) You experience physiological changes followed by a feeling of happiness.
B) You experience physiological changes and context appraisal followed by a feeling of happiness.
C) You feel happiness followed by physiological changes.
D) You experience physiological changes and a feeling of happiness simultaneously.
A. You experience physiological changes followed by a feeling of happiness.
Which sequence of events in emotional responses is characteristic of the James-Lange theory of emotion?
A) physiological changes --> stimulus --> emotion
B) stimulus --> emotion --> physiological changes
C) stimulus --> physiological changes --> emotion
D) stimulus --> emotion AND physiological changes (simultaneous)
C. stimulus --> physiological changes --> emotion
According to research, the majority of gay or bisexual college students report they first became aware of their sexual orientation in __________________.
A) high school
B) middle school
C) before entering school
D) elementary school
A. High school
Primary drives are caused by ______.
A) exceptions to the drive-reduction principle
B) stimuli outside the body
C) stimuli within the body
D) learned behaviors
C. Stimuli within the body
Which of the following factors is most likely to have an effect on predictions made by the Yerkes-Dodson Law?
A) age of person doing the task
B) task instructions
C) difficulty of task
D) gender of person doing the task
C. Difficulty of task
The need to take a drug in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms is called _________.
A) a craving
C) obsessive compulsion
D) physical dependence
D. Physical dependence
Positive psychology can be thought of as ______________.
A) shifting the focus from the abstract to the tangible
B) shifting the focus of psychology from Cognitive to Gestalt
C) shifting the focus from negatives to more positives in psychology while focusing on strengths
D) shifting the focus from achievement to self-actualization
C. Shifting the focus from negatives to more positives in psychology while focusing on strengths
What is the correct sequence of events in emotional response according to the Cannon-Bard theory?
A) physiological changes --> stimulus --> emotion
B) stimulus --> emotion AND physiological changes (simultaneous)
C) stimulus --> physiological changes --> emotion
D) stimulus --> emotion --> physiological changes
B. Stimulus --> emotion AND physiological changes (simultaneous)
Drives that are learned through experience are called ______ drives.
Which statement reflects the core idea of the facial feedback hypothesis?
A) Information from facial muscles intensifies emotional experiences.
B) Facial features have no connection with emotion.
C) Men do not express emotion via the face.
D) When one facial expression occurs, we quickly register its opposite on the face.
A. Information from facial muscles intensifies emotional experiences.
Early in the twentieth century William McDougal proposed that there were _______ human instincts.
Maslow's work has had an impact on the field of ______________.
C) pizza delivery
Jenna skipped dinner last night to stay up late studying for her final exam. She went to bed at 6 am and had to be at class by 8 am. Her alarm clock did not go off as scheduled, and she raced out the door without eating. As a result, she was very distracted by hunger pangs and lack of energy while taking the test. She later learned that she failed her exam. Jenna could have likely performed better on her final if she had met a_______________ need before the final.
Which of the following indicators reflects the possibility of physical dependence?
A) drug tolerance
B) abusing a drug
C) obsessing about a drug
D) getting caught with a drug
A. Drug tolerance
Most recent surveys indicate that _________ of men are predominantly homosexual.
A) 90 percent
B) 50 percent
C) 9 percent
D) 22 percent
C. 9 percent
Jill is motivated by money and the things money will bring her. Jack is motivated by a belief in the importance of doing good things, and his incentives are based on that belief. Which theory incorporates both these types of motivational causes?
A) expectancy-value theory
B) entity theory
C) sensation-seeking theory
D) increment theory
A. Expectancy-value theory
The state of tension created by biological needs is called a(n) ______.
In arousal theory, people are said to have a (an) _________ level of tension.
Dr. Lighthead works with her patients to draw from many of their strengths and successes in her therapy sessions. She often stresses the importance of achievements, strengths, and well-being while not dwelling on past issues of abuse, depression, and unmet goals. Based on the description of her work, Dr. Lighthead is likely to utilize ___________ in her sessions.
A) transient psychology
B) positive psychology
C) optimist psychology
D) structural psychology
B. Positive psychology
Most recent surveys indicate that __________ of men and __________ of women have had at least one homosexual experience.
A) 90 percent; 10 percent
B) 22 percent; 17 percent
C) 50 percent; 50 percent
D) 9 percent; 5 percent
B. 22 percent; 17 percent
Drugs that speed up the functioning of the nervous system are called _____________.
Jack, compared to most other people, appears to need a high level of arousal. He enjoys doing potentially life-threatening hobbies such as sky diving, swimming with sharks, and bungee jumping from bridges. Jack is likely to be a __________.
A) sensation seeker
B) mentally unstable
C) show off
A. Sensation seeker
Mescaline comes from ____________.
A) a virus
B) cactus buttons
C) a poppy plant
B. Cactus buttons
Paul Ekman and his colleagues gathered abundant evidence supporting the universality of _______ basic facial expressions of emotion.
Morphine, heroin, and methadone _______________.
A) are often used to treat ADHD
B) increase the action of the central nervous system
C) are stimulants
D) are derived from opium
D. Are derived from opium
Things that attract or lure people to action are ______________.
Drugs derived from opium are called __________________.
Morphine and heroin duplicate the action of ____________.
The Janus Report surveyed ____________.
A) people from the 48 mainland states
B) people aged 18 to 65
C) 3,000 people
D) All of the choices are correct.
D. All of the choices are correct
What did Charles Darwin believe about the origin of emotions?
A) They are learned through experience.
B) They are a product of evolution.
C) They do not merit scientific consideration.
D) They are remnants of our earliest ancestors and, thus, have little relevance today
B. They are a product of evolutions
One positive outcome of instinct approaches was _____________.
A) a better explanation of behavior
B) that psychologists were now forced to consider the effects of heredity on behavior
C) that they gave birth to psychoanalytic theory
D) that psychologists began focusing on learning theories
B. That psychologists were now forced to consider the effects of heredity on behavior
Physical arousal has to be interpreted cognitively before it is experienced as a specific emotion, according to ____________.
A) the Cannon-Bard theory
B) the James-Lange theory
C) Schachter and Singer
C. Schachter and Singer
Which division of the nervous system is working when we experience emotions?
A) parasympathetic division of the somatic nervous system
B) nonsympathetic division of the nervous system
C) central nervous system
D) sympathetic division of the nervous system
D. Sympathetic division of the nervous system
What do we call biologically determined, innate patterns of behavior?
C) releasing behaviors
D) universal behaviors
Which statement about motivation is TRUE?
A) Motivation energizes and directs behavior.
B) We are always aware of motivational processes.
C) Two people motivated by the same factor will satisfy that motive through similar means.
D) There is only one type of motivation.
A. Motivation energizes and directs behavior
Thirst, sexual desire, and hunger are examples of ______ drives.
Which theory maintains that emotion is caused by the interaction of physiological changes and the cognitive labeling of the reason for the physical reaction?
A) the James-Lange theory
B) cognitive arousal theory
C) the Cannon-Bard theory
D) activation theory
B. Cognitive arousal theory
Indiana Jones goes off to foreign lands in search of artifacts hidden in dangerous places and guarded by fierce protectors. Dr. Jones would be described as _______________ in arousal theory.
A) a person high in nPow
B) a sensation seeker
D) a person high in nAff
B. A sensation seeker
Bill has felt isolated and an "outsider" since coming to college for his freshman year. As a result, he decided to rush a fraternity and was very excited when he was selected to pledge. According to Maslow, Bill may be attempting to meet the need of _______________.
Researchers have found that negative feelings such as sadness, anxiety, and depression seem to be a function of _______________.
A) the occipital lobe and the pineal gland
B) the left hemisphere of the brain
D) the hormone leptin
B. The left hemisphere of the brain
Which theory states that a stimulus triggers physiological changes that produce emotion?
A) commonsense view of emotions
B) Cannon-Bard theory
C) Schachter-Singer theory
D) James-Lange theory
D. James-Lange theory
The ____________ approach to motivation suggests a connection between internal physical states and outward behavior.
When amphetamines are abused, the resulting effects may include ______________.
A) restlessness, insomnia, muscle tension, heartbeat irregularities, and high blood pressure
B) increased appetite, sleepiness, and euphoria
C) heart disease, high blood pressure, impaired circulation, and erectile problems in men
D) psychosis, nausea, high blood pressure, and vomiting
D. Psychosis, nausea, high blood pressure, and vomiting
Donald believes all the teaching in the world will not change the fact that he is stupid and of below average intelligence. According to Dweck, what locus of control does Donald have?
A) internal locus of control
B) external locus of control
B. External locus of control
Which of the following activities is inconsistent with drive-reduction theory?
A) eating food that tastes bad
B) eating when you are not hungry
C) going swimming on a hot day
D) smoking pot to relax
B. Eating when you are not hungry
Michael has trained very long hours in order to qualify for the Olympics in diving. He has sacrificed a great deal as he put his education on hold and spent a lot of time away from his 2 small children and wife. To Michael, qualifying for the Olympics is a(n) __________.
B) innate goal
C) instinctual drive
D) optimum goal
nAch is an abbreviation for ____________.
A) no challenge
B) no achievement
C) need for change
D) need for achievement
D. Need for achievement
The pursuit of an activity for its own sake is propelled by ________________.
A) the need for affiliation
B) biological drives
C) performance goals
D) intrinsic motivation
D. Intrinsic motivation
Which of the following examples best represents the Yerkes-Dodson Law?
A) Toni watches TV all night.
B) Mary buys a new car.
C) Bill has a bad test score because he did not study.
D) Dan plays his best games when they mean the most to the team and his arousal is moderately high.
D. Dan plays his best games when they mean the most to the team and his arousal is moderately high.
Monica put all her time and energy into getting into the acting club because her main goal in life "was to be a famous star!" Monica's drive to be famous was a (an) ______ drive.
The ______ theory of emotion states that the experience of emotion occurs simultaneously with biological changes.
A) Schachter and Singer
B) Cannon-Bard theory
B. Cannon-Bard theory
Many surveys have attempted to determine the number of people who consider themselves to be homosexual and/or the number of people who have had some homosexual experience. It is difficult to arrive at solid figures. The most likely reason is that ____________.
A) All of these are true.
B) people are reluctant to state that they had homosexual experiences or tendencies due to societal attitudes
C) so few people are homosexual that the numbers do not reach the appropriate level for statistical
D) many people repress their homosexual experiences and cannot remember them
B. People are reluctant to state that they had homosexual experiences or tendencies due to societal attitudes.
Ward notices that as his supply of marijuana decreases he starts thinking more and more about where he can get another supply as well as feeling nervous and anxious. This is an example of ____________.
B) psychological dependence
C) physiological dependence
B. Psychological dependence
The work of Simon LeVay on the brain structures of homosexual humans led to similar findings with _________.
You just finished a cup of very strong coffee, which causes your body to have a general feeling of arousal. That afternoon you walk past a cemetery where several people are crying at a graveside. According to Schachter and Singer, which of the following would most likely occur?
A) Your emotion would be happy in spite of the scene at the graveside.
B) Your emotional state would be impossible to predict.
C) You would work very hard to control your emotion.
D) Your emotion would be sad since the context would affect your labeling.
D. Your emotion would be sad since the context would affect your labeling
Facial feedback hypothesis is defined as _______________.
A) a set of social and cultural rules that regulates when, how, and where a person may express (or must
B) a state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective
feelings, and tendencies toward action, all of which are shaped by cultural rules
C) the process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being
D) an irrational aspect of our mammalian heritage that no longer has an adaptive function in human
C. The process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed