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Biotic Structure; Himel
Terms in this set (21)
Define Biotic Structure
Refers to categories of organisms and the way they interact together with the entire ecosystem.
What are the 3 major categories of organisms in an ecosystem?
producers, consumers and decomposers.
What types of organisms are producers?
all plants that carry on photosynthesis.
The process whereby plants use light energy, absorbed by chlorophyll, to convert carbon dioxide from the air and water into sugar. Oxygen gas is formed as a byproduct and is released into the atmosphere (or hydrosphere).
Distinguish between autotrophs and heterotrophs.
Producers are autotrophs, all others are heterotrophs. Not all plants are producers.
Distinguish between primary and secondary consumers. How can an animal be both?
Animals that feed directly on producers are called primary consumers. Animals that feed on primary consumers are called secondary consumers.
Primary consumers, those animals that eat plant material.
Secondary and higher orders of consumers.
Those that feed on plants and animals.
2 examples of a predator- prey relationship.
foxes (predator) and rabbits (prey); Mockingbird (predator) and insect (prey)
2 examples of a parasite-host relationship. Distinguish between ectoparasites and
endoparasites, giving 2 examples of each.
tick (parasite) and squirrel (host); lamprey (parasite) and fish (host).
Ectoparasites attach themselves to the outside of their hosts. Examples of ectoparasites include ticks, lice or lampreys. Endoparasites live inside of their hosts. Examples of endoparasites include tapeworms, pinworms, heartworms and Plasmodium (the protist that causes malaria)
Organisms that are specialized to feed on detritus (dead plant and animal material).
What causes decomposition? What 2 classes (Kingdoms) of organisms perform this vital ecological function?
caused by the feeding activity of (mostly microscopic) decomposers. The 2 classes (Kingdoms) of organisms are fungi and bacteria.
Why can it be said that all ecosystems share a similar biotic structure?
Despite apparent diversity, all can be described in terms of photosynthetic plants, various categories of animal consumers, and decomposers.
14. Compare and Contrast food chain and food web. (How are they the same, how are they different?) What is the advantage of each?
Both food chains and food webs describe pathways in which organisms feed upon other organisms.
Food chains show single pathways, while food webs show how food chains are interconnected. Advantage of each: Answers may vary, but an example is- Food chains provide simple and instructive food pathways, while food webs show the actual complex patterns of energy transfer.
Why are all food chains, webs or trophic levels based on producers?
because they produce the initial supply of organic matter.
Define mutualism. Give 3 examples of mutualistic relationships.
Mutualism - Feeding relationships in which there is a mutual benefit to both species involved. Examples include: Lichens (a fungus and an alga); flowers and bees or other pollinators; coral and cleaner fish
Mutualism and parasitism are 2 forms of what kind of relationship? Why are predator-prey relationships not considered symbiotic?
2 forms of symbiosis. It is not an intimate (living closely together) relationship.
18. How can competition explain why we find grassland in areas that could also be deserts (transition zones or edges) or forest in areas that could be grasslands?
desert plants cannot effectively compete with faster growing grassland plants, and grassland plants cannot compete and will be shaded out by the trees of a forest.
Record the summary of ecosystem structure found on pages 39 and 40 that begins with "In conclusion, ..." and ends with "... the abiotic environment" This statement is important!!
"In conclusion, we find that the biomes and ecosystems within them are far more than individual species interacting independently with the abiotic environment. The biota (the entire community of plants, animals and microbes) is really an exceedingly complex, dynamic entity as all the species interact through innumerable feeding, competitive and mutually supportive relationships. Thus, the ecosystem is really this entire dynamic biota interacting with the abiotic environment."
Give 3 examples of physical barriers.
oceans, deserts and mountain ranges.
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