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BUS 387 Dahm Midterm 3
Terms in this set (125)
how the work of individuals and team w/i an org. is coordinated
degree to which decision making is concentrated at higher levels in an organization
decentralized lends itself to?
more empowerment, faster decisions, more procedural fairness, and creativity
benefit of centralized?
demands more of CEOs, which may lead to more efficient operations in a stable environment
the extent to which policies, procedures, job descriptions, and rules are written and explicitly articulated
DISADV of formalization
reduced innovativeness, reduced motivation & job satisfaction and slower decision making;
big prob. for service industry
number of levels in the hierarchy
several layers of mgmt b/w front line employees and the top level
consist of few layers
span of control
the number of employees reporting to a single manager
span of control in tall structures?
smaller, leading to greater supervising and security needs
span of control in flat structures
wider, leading to more employee freedom, and with it greater need satisfaction and self-actualization, but also need to be more self reliant b/c role ambiguity; advancement more ltd.
group jobs based on similarity in functions; ex. marketing, finance, HR, etc.
departments represent the unique products, services, customers, or geographic locations the company is serving
resembles bureaucracy; highly formalized and centralized; RIGID:
-limited autonomy, self-determination, and motivation
flexible, decentralized structures w. low levels of formalization
-higher job satisfaction
cross traditional functional structure w/ a product structure
+each person reports to dept mnger and product/project mnger
+may increase comm. and coop b/w depts
-violates unity of command principle
-role conflict; task conflict
eliminates traditional barriers b/w dept.s as well as barriers b/w the org and the external env.
all nonessential functions outsourced
two or more companies find an area of collab. and combine their efforts to create a partnership that is beneficial
learning self-mgmt orgs
one where acquiring kw and changing beh. as a result of the newly gained kw are parts of the org.'s structure
-experimentation and testing potential better operational methods encouraged
mvmt of an org. from one state of affairs to another
T/F: age of the workforce is on the rise?
overall complexity of com. circuits doubles every 18 months
T/F: Globalization can be either a threat or an opportunity for organizations, depending on their ability to adapt to relevant changes
T/F; it's easier to change higher performing org.s
F; easier to change poorer performers
most negative reaction to a proposed change attempt
being disturbed by changes w/o necessarily voicing these opinions
going along with little enthusiasm
defenders of the new way and encourage others to support
Why do people resist change?
-personality: positive self concept =>better w/ change
-feelings of uncertainty
-fear of failure
-personal impact of change
-prevalence of change
-perceived loss of power
Is all resistance bad?
No, may be positive, which leads to more effective change
What are the 3 stages to planning and executing change effectively?
1) unfreezing prior to change: ensures employees are ready for change
2) Executing Change
Unfreezing prior to change
-create a vision for change
-communicate a plan
-develop a sense of urgency
-build a coalition
-allow employees to participate
-continue to provide support
-create small wins
-build on prior change
-reward change adoption
-make change a part of org. culture
What are possible alternatives to downsizing? (LIST)
1) retraining employees in different areas
2) early retirement programs
3) hiring freezes
3) Job sharing
What is the key indicator of employee attitudes and performance during org. change?
involves proposals at lower levels being signed and passed to higher management to build consensus
What does the success of flat & decentralized structure depend on?
-high endorsement of participate ledaership
What's a prediction of openness to change?
revolutionary change, as needed
forces that direct behavior away from the status quo
forces that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium
4 solutions for facebook?
1) individual verification
2) Open to independent research
3) "vintage facebook"; no likes or news feed ads
how to overcome the failure to see?
-create high contrast
T/F: Change won't happen if you don't let it
F. Change is going to happen. It is up to you to determine how that change will occur
T/F :Structure determines how information, influence and power flow in the org.
F: structure shapes, but does NOT determine, how information, influence and power flow in the organization
What are the 3 signs of poor fit of an org. structure?
1) poor decision making
What should organization structure follow?
purpose and strategy
John P. Kotter offers an eight stage process for change. What is the initial stage of this process?
Create a sense of urgency when introducing the change effort.
What are the 8 steps to Lewin's model for change?
1) Establish a sense of urgency
2) Form a coalition
3) Create a new vision
4) Communicate the plan
5) Empower others by removing barriers
6) Create and reward short-term "wins"
7) Build on change
8) Make change part of culture
system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs that indicate what is appropriate and inappropriate beh. w/i a given org.
T/F org. culture is a function of written policies
F: org. culture is a function of intangible social cues rather than explicit written policies
What are the levels of org. culture?
taken for granted beliefs about H/N and reality
shared principles, standards, and goals
visible, tangible aspects of org. culture
flexible and adaptable; experiment w/ new ideas
value competitiveness and outperforming competitors
emphasize achievement, results and action as important values;
-negative conseq. potentially => unethical beh.
predictable, rule-oriented, and bureaucratic
value fairness, supportiveness, and respect for individual rts.
collaborative and emphasize cooperation among employees
emphasize precision and paying att'n to details
emphasizes high quality service; solve customer problems proactively
emphasizes safety as a strong workplace norm
one that is shared by org. members
culture that emerges w/i diff depts. branches, or geographic locations
shared values and belies that are in direct opposition to the values of the broader organizational culture
How are cultures created?
shaped by dealing w/ external and internal challenges and learning how to deal w/ them
shaped in early days of a company's history
industry characteristics & demands act as a force to create similar org. cultures
T/F: the process of culture creation is clean
F; the process of culture creation is in fact more complex and less lean than the name implies
T/F: the influence of each factor on culture creation is reciprocal
many companies hire based on fit w/ culture
What's one o f the most important reasons for employee turnover?
new employee onboarding
process through which new employees learn the attitudes, kw, skills, and beh.s required to function effectively w/i an organization
What % of mngers who start a new job fail in the new job and either voluntarily leave or fired w/i 1.5 years?
What can employees do during onboarding?
build strong relationships
What percentage of failing new mngers blame not being able to form effective relationships?
formal orientation program
indoctrinates new employees to the co. culture as well as introduces them to their new jobs and colleagues
What can org. insiders do during onboarding?
mentors can be crucial
T/F: There's a direct correspondence b/w leaders' style and org.'s culture
what are the visual elements of org. culture?
-rules and policies
What are the 6 steps to changing culture?
1) create a sense of urgency
2) change leaders and other key players
3) role model
5) change the reward system
6) create new stories and symbols
corrupt org. cultures have:
1) a belief they are facing a war
2) a belief that ends justify the means
3) a belief in the value of job security and a belief that, to keep jobs secure, unethical acts may be necessary
4) failure to punish unethical actions or reward ethical acts
5) acting like a commune, and a desire to punish those who challenge the status quo
best selection, best service online in any category
1) 30% of all retail transactions will be online
2) people will buy from the company with the best service & selection
3) zappos will be that online store
Zappos ways to reinforce co. culture
-first 3-4 weeks in call center
-employees trained in each core value
-raises from building skills and capability
What does culture relate to?
Culture is a ________ for rules
Culture creation comes from what two factors?
1) founder values and preferences
2) industry demands
how do you kw if strong culture?
consensus among employees
OCOB's dimensions of culture?
ways in which people are similar or different from each other
What are the benefits of diversity?
-higher creativity in decision making
-better understanding and service of customers
-more satisfied workforce
-higher stock prices
-lower litigation expenses
-higher company performance
similarity attraction phenomenon
the tendency to be more attracted to individuals who are similar to us
traits that are highly visible to us and those around us
diversity in values, beliefs, and attitudes
Solutions to diversity problems
1) pay attention in early tenure
2) train mngers to be aware of S-A problem
3) assigning mentors
an attribute along which a group is split into subgroups
Is a fault line going to cause failure?
No, can still succeed if certain norms are established
generalizations about a particular group of people
median earnings of full time women 81%
how much of the earnings gap is accounted for by differences in starting salary?
qualified employees prevented from advancing b/c discrimination; 1/2 WF, yet men 4x more likely to reach highest lvls of an org.
Of the 280 managers that earned more than $100,000 what percentage saw discrimination, and what were the target of racial jokes?
What percentage of the dollar do African Americans make to white men? Hispanics?
75 cents, 67 cents
what percentage of the WF is over 55?
T/F: Sexual orientation discrimination is prevented by federal law
F; only 21 states
T/F preferntial treatmnet is illegal in most cases for affirmative action
refers to values, beliefs, and customs that exist in a society
someone who is temporarily assigned to a foreign country
What do collectivists emphasize?
conformity to group
degree to which the society views an unequal power distance as acceptable
What type of leadership does a society with higher power distance often have?
Suggestions for managing demographic diversity
-build a culture of respecting diversity
-make mngers accountable for diversity
-diversity training programs
-review recruitment practices
-affirmative action program
suggestions for mnging cultural diversity
-help empls build cultural intelligence
-listen to locals
-recognize that culture changes
-do not always assume that culture is the problem
T/F: women have higher ethical standards w/ breaking org. rules
which bill decreed no discrimination on basis of sex, race, color, national origin, and religion.
title VII of civil rights act
What age does the age discrimination act apply to?
40 and older
Which questions are illegal?
Why is diversity important?
-increases stock prices
-increases company performance
-increase workforce satisfaction
-non-discrimination and fairness
-access and legitimacy
-integration and learning
What % of Fortune 500 CEOs are female?
What % of board members are female?
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