Lawyer, former revolutionary figure, and second president of the United States, he was one of the Federalist party. He won against Jefferson in the election after Washington's last term, and was a "tactless and prickly intellectual aristocrat, with no appeal to the masses and with no desire to cultivate any." He was generally an unaccepted president during his time and received much backlash for a lot of his policies, such as his actions in trying to keep peace with France rather than war, although this was later recognized as a good thing. However, he did many things during his Presidency that changed the face of the nation, and although he wasn't nearly as great as Washington, ultimately served as a good second president who sought to keep the US intact and in peace with foreign nations. In this affair, a royal ship overhauled a U.S. ship, also known as The Chesapeake, about ten miles off the coast of Virginia. The British captain bluntly demanded the surrender of four alleged deserters. London had never claimed the right to seize sailors from a foreign war-ship, and the American commander, though totally unprepared to fight, refused the request. The British warship then fired three broadsides at close range, killing three Americans and wounding eighteen. Four deserters were dragged away, and the Chesapeake went back to the port, defeated. Britain was clearly in the wrong, even the London Foreign office admitted so, but they did little about it. Therefore, Americans were extremely angered, and such an incident led to Jefferson's detrimental decision to create the Embargo Act. Jefferson, being the non-confrontational pacifist that he was, proposed this act, which was quickly passed by Congress in 1807. In response to Britain and France's harsh impressment of soldiers and brutality against American ships, Congress declared this embargo, which forbade the export of all goods from the United States, whether in American or foreign ships. More than just a compromise between submission and shooting, the embargo embodied Jefferson's idea of "peaceful coercion." However, the American economy staggered under the effect of the embargo long before Britain or France began to bend. The unemployment rate heightened, large amounts of products were in abundance because they were just waiting to be exported, and Americans were ultimately infuriated by the Act. Yet Jefferson continued to enforce it harshly, an act that was seen as almost more tyrannical than those of King George III before the Revolutionary War. An immense blow to the British in 1814, this battle was essential in further encouraging American nationalism and renewing the spirit of the War. War hero Andrew Jackson led his force (consisting of 7,000 sailors, regulars, pirates and Frenchmen, as well as militiamen from Louisiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee) against the overconfident British, who made the mistake of launching a frontal assault on the entrenched Americans. The attackers suffered the most devastating defeat of the entire war, losing over two thousand, killed and wounded, in half an hour. News of this American victory struck the country. After it, Andrew Jackson became a national hero. It greatly bolstered American nationalism, which led to many changes amongst the country in years to come. The treaty that officially ended the war, signed in 1814. Urged on by Russian Tsar Alexander I, five American "peacemakers" were sent to the small city of Ghent in Belgium in order to discuss an end to the war. (The group was led by John Quincy Adams, son of John Adams.) At first, the negotiations between British and Americans appeared stalemate; they could not agree on any compromises. However, thetreaty was finally signed in 1814. Essentially, it was only a ceasefire and nothing further. No mention was made of the things America had fought for: The Indian menace, search and seizure, Orders in Council, confiscations and impressment. Nothing was gained or lost during this war or as a result of this treaty. But these omissions of aforementioned grievances serve as proof that the Americans had not actually managed to defeat the British. With neither side able to impose its will (due to the stalemate), the treaty negotiations ended as a virtual draw. New England remained definitely against the war, largely due to the embittered Federalists. So, late in 1814, when the capture of New Orleans seemed imminent, Massachusetts issued a call for a convention at Hartford, Connecticut. The states of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island dispatched full delegations; New Hampshire and Vermont sent partial representation. This group of men, 26 in all, met in complete secrecy for about 3 weeks to discuss their grievances and to seek redress for their wrongs. The convention's final reports demanded financial assistance from Washington to compensate for lost trade and proposed constitutional amendments requiring 2/3 vote in Congress before an embargo could be imposed, new states admitted, or war declared. Most of the demands reflected Federalist fears that a once-proud New England was falling subservient to an agrarian South and west. They also sought to abolish the 3/5 clause, unsuccessfully, and to uproot the Virginia Dynasty. Three envoys from Massachusetts carried these demands to Washington, but just at the same time news of the victory at New Orleans came in as well and overshadowed the grievances greatly. Pursued by criticism of the press, the envoys sank away in disgrace and into obscurity. These resolutions, as it turned out, ended up being the "death dirge" of the Federalist party. They were never again to mount a successful presidential campaign. So, basically, this convention served as a final (and failed) Federalist attempt at making change and bringing themselves back to power. In 1819 (as described), an economic catastrophe descended on the nation, causing deflation, depression, bankruptcies, bank failures, unemployment, soup kitchens, and overcrowded debtors' prisons. It surfaced mostly due to over-speculation in frontier lands; the Bank of the US, through its western branches, had become deeply involved in this popular type of outdoor gambling. This panic lasted (in some degree) for several years, causing immense financial paralysis and giving a rude setback to the nationalistic ardor. It hit the West the hardest, however, forcing the western banks to the wall and foreclosing mortgages on countless farms there. All this was technically legal but politically unwise, because in the eyes of a western debtor the national bank became extremely sour. This panic also created backwashes in the political and social world. The poorer classes were severely strapped, and in their troubles Jacksonian democracy emerged. Also, mounting agitation against imprisonment for debt bore fruit in remedial legislation in an increasing number of states. After Monroe's presidency came to an end, the election of 1824 became the last of the old-style elections, and was marked by this controversial event. Candidates Jackson and Quincy Adams were in a deadlock, because Jackson had more of the popular vote whilst Adams had reign with the most amount of electoral votes. The House of Representatives was called upon to break the "stalemate", and Henry Clay, Speaker of the House, met with candidate Quincy Adams in order to establish cordial personal relations. Soon, Adams was elected president against the popular vote and Clay immediately named Adam's Secretary of State. Jackson, the opponent, saw this an unjust, corrupt bargain, and according to him and his supporters, Adams had bribed Clay with the position, making himself victor over Jackson. This caused masses of angry Jacksonian's to emerge and launched campaigning for the next election, an election that would change politics for years to come. The last of the old-style elections. Candidates included Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay and William Crawford. Clay and Crawford, however, were quickly eliminated from the election (Crawford due to medical conditions and Clay due to his unpopularity) and the election became a deadlock between Jackson, the one with the majority popular vote, and Adams, the one with the majority electoral vote. Eventually, the House of Representatives chose Adams, against the people's own judgment, and Adams quickly named Henry Clay (Speaker of the House at the time) his secretary of state. Jackson and his followers were enraged by this and immediately launched campaigning for the next election, which would change politics for years to come. Jackson had always been against what he saw as the corruption of the National Bank (the bank did, in fact, hold a considerable amount of corruption, largely due to Biddle's monopolization of power and money). Because of his intense opposition, this "war" emerged in 1832, when Daniel Webster and Henry Clay presented Congress with a bill to renew the Bank of the United States' charter. The charter was not set to expire until 1836, but Clay pushed for renewal four years early to make it an election issue for Jackson in 1832. Jackson adamantly vetoed the bill, however, claiming the monopolistic bank to be unconstitutional. Not only did he do this, however, but he amplified the power of the presidency with this action. All previous vetoes had rested almost exclusively on questions of constitutionality. But though Jackson invoked the Constitution in his bank-veto message, he essentially argued that he was vetoing the bill because he personally found it harmful to the nation. In effect, he was claiming for the president alone a power equivalent to two-thirds of the votes in Congress. Also, by vetoing the bank charter, he hurt the country economically but did much for it politically. This was a symptom of the financial sickness of the times. Its basic cause was rampant speculation prompted by a mania of "get-rich-quick" thoughts. Gamblers in western lands were doing a "land-office business" on borrowed capital, much of it being done with paper money. This craze even spread to canals, roads, railroads, and slaves. It was also caused by previous Jacksonian finance, which had landed America in a difficult economic position. Soon enough, failure of wheat crops began to deepen the distress. Grain prices were inflated and anger mounted amongst citizens. It also effected foreign affairs with Britain, because we could not offer them the loans that they asked for. Hardship was acute and widespread. American banks collapsed and carried down with them several million in government funds. Commodity prices drooped, sales of public lands fell off, and customs revenues dried up. Factories closed their doors, and unemployment rates increased rapidly. It left the country in a state of economic crisis and conflict.