BLOCK 3 REVIEWER
Terms in this set (70)
Pressure Gradient Force
the net result of the pressure gradient that is directed from high to low pressure.
Pressure Gradient Force
responsible for triggering the initial movement of air.
Coriolis Force (Cf)
an apparent deflection due to the earth's rotation.
A theoretical winds generated when the Coriolis force is exactly equal and opposite to the pressure-gradient force (geostrophic balance).
winds balanced by the Cf and PGF
Air parcel at rest
move from high pressure to low pressure
Moving air parcel
deflected to the right (NH)/left (SH) by the Cf; as the speed increases, Cf = PGF (i.e., wind will be parallel to the isobars (pressure)
non-geostrophic winds which blow parallel to isobars
As the wind gains speed, the deflection increases until the Coriolis force equals the pressure gradient force.
This is the last of the forces that causes air to spiral out from highs and into lows
The final major factor effecting the direction that wind follows
On the Low Pressure System, without friction, winds will be moving _________________ around the center of the low in the NH .
On the High Pressure System, without friction, winds will be moving _________________ around the center of the low in the NH .
On the Low Pressure System, friction causes ____________________ in the center of the low pressure system at the surface.
On the High Pressure System, friction causes ________________ (convergence) in the center of the high (low) pressure system at the surface.
Buy's Ballots Law
states: If, in the Northern Hemisphere, You stand with your back to the wind; the high pressure is to your right and low pressure to your left; In the Southern Hemisphere, the high pressure to your left and low pressure to your right
is the rough horizontal movement of air (as opposed to an air current) caused by uneven heating of the Earth's surface.
cool air from over the water moving toward land and occur after sunrise.
occur after sunset when air warmed by the land blows toward the water.
During the day the air close to the mountain sides becomes warmer than the surrounding air, thus lowering pressure relative to the cooler air at the same height over the valley.
At night the sides of the mountain cool down and cool air is pulled down by gravity.
the largest planetary-scale wind pattern, include the westerlies and trade winds.
Synoptic Scale/Weather-Map Scale
smaller macroscale circulation.
thunderstorms, tornadoes and land and sea breezes, influence smaller areas and exhibit intensive vertical flow.
the smallest scale of air motion, example of these are chaotic winds, gust devils and dust devils.
are patterns of wind circulation that change with the season. Areas with monsoons generally have dry winters and wet summers.
one of the world's wettest places. Rainfall amounts there can exceed 10 meters (425 inches) per year!
Three convection cells in each hemisphere
Can be found at NE (30°N to 0°) and SE (30°S to 0°)
Can be found at 60°N to 30°N and 60°S to 30°S
Can be found at 90°N to 60°N and 90°S to 60°S
atmospheric circulation cell
A large circuit of air is called?
are tropical cells found on each side of the equator.
are found near the poles.
are found at the mid-latitudes.
are surface winds of Ferrel cells.
are calm equatorial areas where two Hadley cells converge
are areas between Hadley and Ferrel cells.
are surface winds of Hadley cells.
_____________ is sinking air.
_____________ is coming together.
_____________ is going apart.
encountered in an area where two winds moving in opposite directions "rub" or mix together
creates small eddies and whirling masses of air that move in various directions. It also generates tremendous turbulence
are relatively large bodies of air that are fairly horizontally uniform in characteristics. They may extend across an entire continent and are relatively uniform in temperature and moisture content. (humidity)
polar latitudes P
located poleward of 60 degrees north and south
tropical latitudes T
located within about 25 degrees of the equator
m for maritime
located over the oceans----moist
c for continental
located over large land masses--dry
cP continental polar
cold, dry, stable
cT continental tropical
hot, dry, stable air aloft--unstable surface air
mP maritime polar
cool, moist, and unstable
mT maritime tropical
warm, moist, usually unstable
cA continental Arctic
extremely cold temperatures and very little moisture.
is a low pressure system located over the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea. During winter, this is the zone of activity where numerous storms are located. Atmospheric disturbances often move into this area and intensify under the influence of it.
During summer, the ________________- is weak and often nearly nonexistent.
is a low pressure system located Iceland and Atlantic Ocean. This Low Pressure is similar to Aleutian Low as this is the area where cyclones converge and intensify during the winter months.
During summer, it splits into two separate areas and weakens.
is a high pressure system located in the Atlantic Ocean. The summer months along the east coast are relatively wet and humid the wind around the high blows moist air from the ocean inland. During winter months it is located farther east of the US. The winds around Bermuda High also push the surface water of the Atlantic ocean resulting to the strong Gulf stream current.
The center of the ___________ is an area of light winds and little currents.
is a high pressure system located off the west coast of North America.
During the summer months it is located in the east coast brings wet season compared to the west coast of US. During winter months it moves farther South.
Siberian High (also Siberian Anticyclone)
is a massive collection of very cold dry air that accumulates on the northeastern part of Eurasian terrain for the cold part of the year, roughly from September till April.
It affects the weather patterns in most parts of the Northern Hemisphere it is a critical component of the northeast monsoon, occasionally a strong Siberian High can bring unusually cold weather into the tropics as far southeast as the Philippines.
Ideal gas molecules do not attract or repel each other.
Ideal gas molecules themselves take up no volume.
recommends that volume is contrarily corresponding to the absolute pressure.
prescribes that volume is directly relative to the temperature.
recommends that volume is directly corresponding to the quantity of moles of gas. Here, the temperature and pressure is constant.
The depth of the atmosphere that friction does play a role in atmospheric motion