Dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. Not the world's biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy.
Urban area over 10 million people, often an agglomeration of one or more urban centres
Urban area over 20 million people, often an agglomeration of one or more urban centres
An urban area with over a million people living there
A set of processes leading to the interconnectedness of the world through the transfer of goods, services, capital, people and information. Urban areas play a role in this.
Changes in Natural Increase
Cities tend to help to lower mortality rates as access to imported medical care and technology, better access to food and improved sanitation bring down death rates. This means that birth rate can exceed death rates and megacities grow naturally.
E.g.agricultural change and revolution, encourage megacity growth and the increase in urbanisation people often have to move or migrate from rural areas to urban areas.
Cities are declared capital cities
Governments can change the capital city if they wish. Basilia in Brazil was declared capital in 1960 after being planned in 1956. It now has 2.5million inhabitants from nothing in the 1950s! Many megacities are capital cities
Ports and trading cities
Coastal locations are advantageous as they allowed increased global trade, A reason for increasing city size
City of 12.5 million, became China's first Special Enterprise Zones on its South East Coastline. Shenzhen's modern cityscape is the result of the vibrant economy made possible by rapid foreign investment since the institution of the policy of "reform and opening" establishment of the SEZ in the late 1979, before which it was only a small village.
Colonial powers such as the UK and France created many urban areas, often in coastal areas as the sought to exploit resources within their new territories. Lima was created by the Spanish in Peru, whilst Rio de Janeiro was established by the Portuguese in Brazil.
Economic reasons for megacities
TNCs and the global economy have focused production in urban areas, and this causes many cities to grow into centres of production globally, that can be used to create wealth for governments and create import substitution of goods.
expands access to services, provides public tr5ansport, water, electricity and more diverse employment markets
diseconomies of scale, shortage of housing in low income countries, high cost of land and housing in HICs, pollution management, homogenisation
Diseconomies of scale
cost disadvantages that firms and governments accrue due to increase in city size and the issues associated with it. E.g. harder to move goods in traffic jams in megacities.
Population is 8.17 million in 2018, a world city with influence in banking via stock exchange and HQs of many banks, media, transport hub (e.g. Heathrow) and major seat of UK political power
London Metropolitan Area
10-18 million (number of residents depends on the definition used), this would make it a Megacity
Globalization and World Ranking Research Network, ranks cities by status considering things like the connectivity of cities and advanced services