Urban change: deindustrialisation, decentralisation, rise of service economy.
Any change within the urban environment associated with growth or decline
A process involving the loss of manufacturing industries in many HICs
The movement of population, shops, offices and industry away from urban centres in HICs and NICs into housing estates, retail and business parks in the suburbs
Rise of service economy
The increased importance of the service sector in industrialized economies.
Current list of Fortune 500 companies
Contains more service companies and fewer manufacturers than in previous decades.
Competition from abroad
Resulted in deindustrialisation in British cities, particularly from emerging industrialising economies such as the Asian Tigers and BRIC economies
The process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery. Resulted in unemployment in many manufacturing industries and continues to this day with increasing use of robotics, computers and automation.
Of certain manufacturing products also led to deindustrialisation resulting in urban decline.
A period of major industrialisation that took place during the late 1700s and early 1800s. This time period saw the mechanization of agriculture and textile manufacturing and a revolution in power, including steam ships and railroads, this resulted in massive city growth across Europe
Commercial, industrial, or financial operations that are unrestricted in their location or field of operations and able to respond to fluctuations in the market. Applies to many service industries and to many TNCs
Involves the intellectual services: research, development, and information. Massive growth industry in the UK with large economic output
Part of a country's economy concerned with the provision of services such as retailing, finance, transport, health and education
Social Impacts deindustrialisation in urban areas
Increase in unemployment, higher levels of social issues such as crime, drug abuse and family breakdown, Out migration of skilled population
Economic Impacts deindustrialisation in urban areas
De-multiplier effect, decline in property prices, loss of jobs, lower disposable incomes, loss of local tax base
Environmental Impacts deindustrialisation in urban areas
Dereliction of buildings, Land pollution, reduced housing maintenance, positives of lower environmental impact cause by lower population levels and lower economic activity
Number of manufacturing worked in UK in 1978
Number of manufacturing worked in UK in 2010
Number of manufacturing worked in UK in 2017
Long term unemployment
Refers to people who have been unemployed for 12 months or more (OECD), happens in deindustrialising areas as people made jobless do not have skills needed to move into new industries.
A form of unemployment caused by a mismatch between the skills that workers in the economy can offer, and the skills demanded of workers by employers
Inner city locations
Have been avoided by newer manufacturers and service industries in favour of edge of city sites resulting in Urban decline
The deterioration of the inner city often caused by lack of investment and maintenance. It is often but not exclusively accompanied by a decline in population numbers, decreasing economic performance and unemployment.
A standard of living below that of the majority in a particular society that involves hardships and lack of access to resources. Places suffering from urban deprivation have visible differences in housing and economic opportunities been the rich living alongside poor people.