27 terms

New urban landscapes

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Town centre mixed development
Urban development that blends residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or entertainment uses, where those functions are physically and functionally integrated, and that provides pedestrian connections
Flagship attractions
Any major attraction in an urban development with distinct qualities, including uniqueness, location, international reputation, and outstanding media attention, making it a 'must-see' attraction and relatively large in size and economic impact. E.g. Centre for Life Newcastle
Leisure facilities
Such as cinemas, theatre, gyms, restaurants offering services to people in mixed use developments
Public realm
The space around, between and within buildings that are publicly accessible, including streets, squares, parks and open spaces.
Public space
A place that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads (including the pavement), public squares, parks and beaches are typically considered public space. Very important within urban areas
Residential areas
Have been added to town centre mixed developments to increase use of other features such as leisure and retail facilities.
Cultural events
Often take place in town centre mixed developments to attract people into the city- such as winter markets
Trinity Square, Gateshead
An example of a town centre mixed development in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear. Replaced an iconic car park used in the fil "Get Carter" in a zone suffering serious economic decline
Out of town retail parks
A large specially built area, usually at the edge of a town or city, where there are a lot of large shops and sometimes other facilities such as cinemas and restaurants.
Cultural quarter
Has a prerequisite of the presence of cultural activity, and, where possible, this should include cultural production (making objects, goods, products, and providing services) as well as cultural consumption (people going to shows, visiting venues and galleries).
Heritage quarters
These areas focus more upon the historical uniqueness of areas based around small scale industries
Ouseburn Valley
Example of a cultural and heritage quarter, with Seven Stories, art galleries, local breweries and pubs replacing old manufacturing of glass, lead, paints etc.
Gentrification
The process by which wealthier (mostly middle-income) people move into, renovate, and restore housing and sometimes businesses in inner cities or other deteriorated areas formerly home to poorer people.
Economic benefits of gentrification
Increases tax income for local councils and brings wealth into an area.
Economic costs of gentrification
Traditional businesses face increased competition from incoming newer businesses.
Social benefits of gentrification
Creates greater employment opportunities in new areas such as design
Social costs of gentrification
Original locals can be priced out of the area as rent and house prices increase. Called community displacement
The rent gap
An economic cause of gentrification where a property has fallen below its actual value due to poor maintenance or upkeep
Commuting costs
Gentrification occurs in Inner city areas so people who buy in these areas can reduce their commute to work
Pioneer image
Where individuals consider it cool and creative to move into more difficult neighbourhoods
Fortress landscapes
Landscapes designed around security, protection, surveillance and exclusion
Fortress landscape strategies
CCTV, Mosquito alarms, fences and railings, anti homeless spikes, street lighting
"Designing out crime"
By providing defensible space, high visibility policing and changing road layouts
Gated communities
A form of residential community or housing estate containing strictly controlled entrances for pedestrians, bicycles, and automobiles, and often characterized by a closed perimeter of walls and fences. Common in South Africa.
Edge cities
A relatively large urban area situated on the outskirts of a city, typically beside a major road. Often self contained. E.g. Santa Monica, Los Angeles
Social segregation
Exists whenever the proportions of population rates of two or more populations are not homogenous throughout a defined space, happens with ethnic groups, social classes and gender groups. Feature of urban areas
Post-Modern western city
The mixing of architecture, art, literature and even the nature of the economy in urban developments at the end of the twentieth century
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