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They give us short term energy!!

What are carbohydrates made of?

Long chains of monosaccharides.
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen


A monosaccharide is a single unit of a carbohydrate, (3-7 carbons) usually in a ring formation

Monosaccharides examples

glucose, fructose, and galactose
All 3 have the same formula C6H12O6 ... but, they have different shapes and properties


A disaccharide consists of two monosaccharide units that have been joined together.

Disaccharide examples

maltose, lactose and sucrose


A polysaccharide consists of long chains of monosaccharides that have been joined together by dehydration synthesis.

Examples of polysaccharides are:

Starch - plant based
Cellulose - forms plant cell walls
We cannot digest cellulose, but it is high in fiber which is good for the colon.
Glycogen - 'animal starch'
It acts as a storage molecule for excess glucose. Glycogen is stored in the liver.


A single unit of anything

The two main classes of lipids are?

fats & oils

What elements make up lipids?


2 structure of fats? form what?

glycerol & 3 fatty acids.

fatty acids?

all Fats are a hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group at 1 end

saturated fat?

there are only single bonds between each carbon, and hydrogen atom. These are solid at room temperature (ex: butter).

unsaturated fat?

there are double or even triple bonds between some of the carbon atoms. These are liquid at room temperature (ex: oils).

functions of proteins?

1. Enzymes regulate chemical reactions
2. Transport - to cross the cell membrane and carry other substances throughout the body, such as hemoglobin
3. Hormones - are chemical messengers
4. Body structure - muscles, hair, gums, skin, and parts of bone

What elements are in proteins?

S, P, O, N, C, H

formation & breakage of proteins?

Dehydration synthesis is responsible for joining two amino acids together.
Hydrolysis is chemical reaction that splits apart two joined amino acids.


Proteins contain about 50 to over 100,000 amino acids
To form a protein, the amino acids arranged in a specific order, and will also take on a unique shape. The amino acids form cross links between them.

How to break cross links?

These cross links may be broken by heat, radiation, electricity or chemical reaction. When this happens, the protein will no longer function correctly, and is said to be denatured.

function of nucleic acids?

Nucleic Acids direct the growth and development of all organisms through a chemical code.

2 types of nucleic acids?

DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid
RNA - Ribonucleic acid

elements of nucleic acids?

P, O, N, C, H

nucleic acids composed of?

composed on long chains of nucleotides
-nitrogenous base
-ribose sugar

sugar used for dna?

deoxyribose; one less oxygen on DNA


The sugar used in RNA molecules

dna bases?


rna bases?



Forms a double polymer called the double helix


bonds with thymine


Forms only a single polymer. It copies one side of the DNA double helix and takes the 'code' out of the nucleus. It provides the 'recipe' to the ribosomes to make proteins.


bonds with Cytosine


Any large molecule composed of repeating monomers.

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