Long chains of monosaccharides. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
A monosaccharide is a single unit of a carbohydrate, (3-7 carbons) usually in a ring formation
glucose, fructose, and galactose All 3 have the same formula C6H12O6 ... but, they have different shapes and properties
A disaccharide consists of two monosaccharide units that have been joined together.
maltose, lactose and sucrose
A polysaccharide consists of long chains of monosaccharides that have been joined together by dehydration synthesis.
Examples of polysaccharides are:
Starch - plant based Cellulose - forms plant cell walls We cannot digest cellulose, but it is high in fiber which is good for the colon. Glycogen - 'animal starch' It acts as a storage molecule for excess glucose. Glycogen is stored in the liver.
A single unit of anything
The two main classes of lipids are?
fats & oils
What elements make up lipids?
C H O
2 structure of fats? form what?
glycerol & 3 fatty acids. triglyceride
all Fats are a hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group at 1 end
there are only single bonds between each carbon, and hydrogen atom. These are solid at room temperature (ex: butter).
there are double or even triple bonds between some of the carbon atoms. These are liquid at room temperature (ex: oils).
functions of proteins?
1. Enzymes regulate chemical reactions 2. Transport - to cross the cell membrane and carry other substances throughout the body, such as hemoglobin 3. Hormones - are chemical messengers 4. Body structure - muscles, hair, gums, skin, and parts of bone
What elements are in proteins?
S, P, O, N, C, H
formation & breakage of proteins?
Dehydration synthesis is responsible for joining two amino acids together. Hydrolysis is chemical reaction that splits apart two joined amino acids.
SPECIAL STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS
Proteins contain about 50 to over 100,000 amino acids To form a protein, the amino acids arranged in a specific order, and will also take on a unique shape. The amino acids form cross links between them.
How to break cross links?
These cross links may be broken by heat, radiation, electricity or chemical reaction. When this happens, the protein will no longer function correctly, and is said to be denatured.
function of nucleic acids?
Nucleic Acids direct the growth and development of all organisms through a chemical code.
2 types of nucleic acids?
DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid RNA - Ribonucleic acid
elements of nucleic acids?
P, O, N, C, H
nucleic acids composed of?
composed on long chains of nucleotides -nitrogenous base -ribose sugar -phosphate
sugar used for dna?
deoxyribose; one less oxygen on DNA
The sugar used in RNA molecules
Cytosine Guanine Adenine Thymine
Cytosine Guanine Adenine Uracil
Forms a double polymer called the double helix
bonds with thymine
Forms only a single polymer. It copies one side of the DNA double helix and takes the 'code' out of the nucleus. It provides the 'recipe' to the ribosomes to make proteins.
bonds with Cytosine
Any large molecule composed of repeating monomers.