Issues associated with economic inequality, social segregation and cultural diversity
The difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries. There can be huge differences in wealth within cities.
Exists whenever the proportions of population rates of two or more populations are not homogenous throughout a defined space, happens with ethnic groups, social classes and gender groups. Feature of urban areas
the existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a society, has increased in cities via migration.
Any collection of buildings where the people have no legal rights to the land they are built upon. The people are living there illegally and do not own the land. They provide housing for many of the world's poorest people and offer basic shelter
Urban social exclusion
Where people in society are excluded from parts of their own city by social and economic factors, often faced by people in areas of multiple deprivation
The dispersion or spread of any people from their original homeland, they often congregate in similar areas within a city.
Index of Multiple deprivation
A UK government qualitative study of deprived areas in English local councils. Includes 7 factors: Income, Employment, Health deprivation and Disability, Education Skills and Training, Barriers to Housing, and Services, Crime, Living Environment.
When different types of deprivation e.g. lack of education, poor health, high crime levels, high unemployment are combined into one overall measure of deprivation
An absolute standard based on a minimum amount of income needed to sustain a healthy and minimally comfortable life, in this case, within an urban area
Extreme differences between poverty and wealth, as well as in peoples' well-being and access to things like jobs, housing and education. Inequalities may occur in: housing provision, access to services, access to open land
A wage that is high enough to maintain a normal standard of living, designed to tackle urban poverty. Newcastle upon Tyne City Council operates this system.
Providing a higher wage for key workers in the most expensive areas. There is a wage supplement for Teachers in London for example.
Access to affordable housing
A major cause of urban exclusion, governments have targeted housing at lower income groups in certain parts of cities for those on lower incomes
Affordable public transport systems improve mobility for the urban poor and open access to a greater range of economic opportunities. E.g. Curitiba's bus transport network.
Reasons for cultural diversity
Cities are the first point of entry for immigrants, more immigrants due to mobility and humanitarian crisis, economic opportunity, communities of similar ethnicity already established in area
Issues with cultural diversity
Racism and conflict, Pressure on urban services such as education and health care, language difficulties, failure to integrate
Positives of cultural diversity
Different foods, music, languages and religion all available, e.g. Mela in Newcastle
A part of a city, especially a slum area, occupied by a minority group or groups.
The migration of white people from inner-city areas (especially those with a large black population) to the suburbs. Term originated in 1950s and 60s United States
Support for cross-cultural dialogue and challenging self-segregation tendencies within cultures.
Reasons for ethnic segregation
Specialist shops and facilities, protection against prejudice and racial abuse, support of friends and near relatives, Maintenance of language and culture,
Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government's Gross National Product; as opposed to a formal economy.