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Final History 122 Exam - JTCC
Terms in this set (78)
"Desert Fox"-May 1942, led Nazi attack on British in Egypt to gain Suez Canal. Defeated by British Gen. Montgomery at the Battle of El Alamein. Helped kill Hitler
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communist Party after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush all opposition.
All black unit of fighter pilots. trained in Alabama. Won many awards for bravery and never lost a single pilot
Bataan Death March
(1942) a forced march of American and Filipino prisoners of war captured by the Japanese in the Philippines in World War II
(FDR) , 1941 United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II.
Site of important battle near Japanese mainland; last battle before atomic bombs; Allies won. Largest amphibious battle of WWII, lasted 82 days
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
A series of court proceedings held in Germany, after World War II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of war, and crimes against humanity.
Born in Austria, became a radical German nationalist during World War I. He became dictator of Germany in 1933. He led Europe into World War II.
July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction. Beginning of Cold War.
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
A Soviet leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Also famous for denouncing Stalin and allowed criticism of Stalin within Russia.
Harry S. Truman
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb (1945-1953)
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
General William Westmoreland
The commander of U.S. forces in Vietnam
Executive Order 9981
Harry Truman ordered the desegregation of the armed forces
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Brown v. Board
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause "separate but equal" has no place (1954)
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatically. Outlawed literacy tests.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
United States civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of Blacks. He preached non-violence and was assassinated by James Earl Ray.
Dr. Jonas Salk
developed polio vaccine
1st and youngest U.S. woman in space; June, 1983
Republican, first non elected president and VP, he pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. Evacuated nearly 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam, closing the war. We are heading toward rapid inflation. He runs again and debates Jimmy carter
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Appointed by President Bill Clinton and took the oath of office on August 10, 1993. She is the second female justice (after Sandra Day O'Connor) and the first Jewish female justice.
A British army general who defeated the Germans (Erwin Rommel) at El Alamein in Egypt, and began pursuing them westward.
Prime minister of Japan during World War II
Asian Americans that served in the military during World War II. 442nd
Beach in France Allies Invaded,Codenamed Operation Overlord, it was the long awaited Allied invasion of France and the opening of the Second Front during World War II. The initial invasion began on June 6, 1944.
Battle fought very close to Hawaii in 1942, an American victory that saved Hawaii from Japanese takeover
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Combined German and Italian forces were beaten near Alexandria, which lead to the Allied taking of Morocco and Algeria. Turning point in North Africa.
Navajo Code Talkers
Native Americans used their own language to make a code for the U.S. military that the Japanese could not decipher
Detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President.
supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)
an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda,
General Douglas Macarthur
He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WW2(He liberated the Phillipines and made the Japanese surrender at Tokyo in 1945, also he drove back North Korean invaders during the Korean War). Removed by Truman.
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba
John F. Kennedy
President during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the Cuban missile crisis. He was the president who went on tv and told the public about the crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet union to withdraw their missiles. Other events: the building of the Berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.
After Johnson. Republican; Ended Vietnam War; Recognized China/ Watergate scandal; First president to resign
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year, which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Banned discrimination in public accommodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment.
Abolishes poll taxes (1964)
Davis V. Board
Overturned racial segregation in public schools (1954)
1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became first people to walk on the moon
In 1966, as chair of SNCC, he called to assert Black Power. Supporting the Black Panthers, he was against integration.
Democrat; Don't Ask Don't Tell policy implemented by Congress, Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, Travelgate controversy; Operation Desert Fox (4 day bombing campaign in Iraq); Scandals: Whitewater controversy, Lewinsky scandal (impeached and acquitted), Travelgate controversy, Troopergate; first balanced budget since 1969
Sandra Day O'Conner
The first woman ever to serve on the Supreme Court (1981)
Created the Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
2nd African American Supreme Court Justice; current member
George C. Marshall
Secretary of State under Truman, in charge of state department during and after WW2.
Rosie The Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
Siege of Stalingrad
1942 turning point during Germany's invasion of Russia; Russians successfully defended the city and then went on the offensive toward Berlin.
A set of international standards of conduct for treating prisoners of war, established in 1929
a bloody and prolonged operation on this island in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders. Flag raising (February and March 1945)
Battle of Britain
German air forces invaded Britain but the British Royal Air Force drove them out with the help of the new invention radar that let them know where the German planes were.
the cover name for Hitler's plan to destroy all the Jews in Europe, It began in December 1941
Office of Strategic Services
a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency, and it was the predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
US provided financial assistance to recover economies in Europe; aimed towards anti-communist governments in France, Italy, and Germany; Eventually 17 western European nations. Eastern European nations prohibited from receiving help from US
(1950-3) A conflict between UN forces (primarily US and S Korea) against North Korea, and later China; Gen. Douglas Macarthur led UN forces and was later replaced by Gen. Ridgeway; Resulted in Korea remaining divided at the 38th parallel.
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. He put papers in pumpkins.The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
Lyndon B. Johnson
Became president after Kennedy's assassination and reelected in 1964; Democrat; signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law, promoted his "Great Society" plan, part of which included the "war on poverty", Medicare and Medicaid established; Vietnam: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Tet Offensive
Lawyer and civil rights leader who helped in Brown V. Board of education case for integration of public schools
Appointed by Eisenhower, this Supreme court Chief Justice who played an important role in the court's stance on the advancement of civil rights. Brown v. Board
Supply Side Economics
An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.
Democrat; first African American president of the US, health care bill; Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster; economy: huge stimulus package to combat the great recession, is removing troops from Iraq, strengthened numbers in Afghanistan; repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell; New Start treaty with Russia.
George H.W. Bush
Economic recession and US involvement in the Persian Gulf war
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
1st American to orbit Earth
Executive Order 9066
(FDR) Order to send any/all with Japanese heritage to internment camps on the west coast
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