47 terms

Micro Chap 9

recombinant DNA
genetic engineering, genes can be transferred among unrelated species via laboratory manipulation
many genetically identical cells
is the use of microorganisms, cells or cell components to make a product
microbes with desirable traits are selected for culturing by artificial selection
mutagens are used to cause mutations that might result in a microbe with desirable traints
shuttle vectors
plasmids that can exist in several different species
inserts the DNA into a new cell which is grown to form a clone
restriction enzyme
recognizes and cuts only one particular nucleotide sequence in DNA
restriction enzymes produce
sticky ends, short stretches of single-stranded DNA at the ends of DNA fragments
polymerase chain reaction
PCR is used to make multiple copies of a desired piece of DNA enzymatically
can be used to increase the amounts of DNA in samples to detectable levels. This may allow sequencing of genes, the diagnosis of genetic diseases or the detection of viruses.
genomic libraries
can be made by cutting up the entire genome with restrictions enzymes and inserting the fragments into bacterial plasmids or phages
e. coli
is used to produce protein using rDNA because it is easily grown and its genomics are well understood
small circular DNA molecule that replicates independently of the chromosome, self replicating pieces of DNA
thermus aquaticus
produces DNA polymerase
use virus as vectors
use plasmid as vectors
electrical current forms small pores in membranes to insert foreign DNA into cells
cells take up DNA from surrounding environment to insert foreign DNA into cells
protoplast fusion
enzymatically remove the cells to insert foreign DNA into cells
vectors must have
ORI region
shuttle vectors
can exist in several different species carrying cloned DNA sequences between species
seperate strands of DNA
gene gun
shoot foreign DNA directly through the cell wall using tungsten or gold coated with foreign DNA, helium bursts shoot them into the cell
using a small glass pipette, DNA is injected into the cytoplasm of the cell
does not go through translation
complementary DNA
does not have introns
lipid A, endotoxin, must be removed from products
five ways of inserting DNA into the cell
gene gun, microinjection, vectors, electroporation, transformation, protoplast fusion
In nature, the function of restriction enzymes is to
destroy phage DNA
sequencing a genome provides
the order of nucleotides
the shotgun sequencing technique
put RFLPs in the order they occur in a chromosome
dna fingerprints are
restriction fragments
restriction enzymes were first discovered with the observation that
phage DNA is destroyed in a host cell
the fourth step to genetically modify a cell
what is the second enzyme used to make cDNA
if you put a gene in a virus, the next step in genetic modification would be
pieces of human DNA stored in yeast cells
a population of cells carrying a desired plasmid
self-replicating DNA for transmitting a gene from one organism to another
a gene that hybridizes with mRNA
dna cutting enzymes that often form sticky ends
restriction enzymes
self replicating dna molecule used as a carrier to transmit a gene from one organism to another
an enzyme that links short peices of dna into longer pieces
dna ligase
an enzyme that links nucleotides to form DNA
dna polymerase
short segments of single stranded dna used to recognize a dna sequence in a gene
these stretches of dna in eukaryotes do not code for proteins