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genetic engineering, genes can be transferred among unrelated species via laboratory manipulation
restriction enzymes produce
sticky ends, short stretches of single-stranded DNA at the ends of DNA fragments
polymerase chain reaction
PCR is used to make multiple copies of a desired piece of DNA enzymatically
can be used to increase the amounts of DNA in samples to detectable levels. This may allow sequencing of genes, the diagnosis of genetic diseases or the detection of viruses.
can be made by cutting up the entire genome with restrictions enzymes and inserting the fragments into bacterial plasmids or phages
is used to produce protein using rDNA because it is easily grown and its genomics are well understood
small circular DNA molecule that replicates independently of the chromosome, self replicating pieces of DNA
can exist in several different species carrying cloned DNA sequences between species
shoot foreign DNA directly through the cell wall using tungsten or gold coated with foreign DNA, helium bursts shoot them into the cell
five ways of inserting DNA into the cell
gene gun, microinjection, vectors, electroporation, transformation, protoplast fusion
restriction enzymes were first discovered with the observation that
phage DNA is destroyed in a host cell
self replicating dna molecule used as a carrier to transmit a gene from one organism to another
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