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recombinant DNA

genetic engineering, genes can be transferred among unrelated species via laboratory manipulation


many genetically identical cells


is the use of microorganisms, cells or cell components to make a product


microbes with desirable traits are selected for culturing by artificial selection


mutagens are used to cause mutations that might result in a microbe with desirable traints

shuttle vectors

plasmids that can exist in several different species


inserts the DNA into a new cell which is grown to form a clone

restriction enzyme

recognizes and cuts only one particular nucleotide sequence in DNA

restriction enzymes produce

sticky ends, short stretches of single-stranded DNA at the ends of DNA fragments

polymerase chain reaction

PCR is used to make multiple copies of a desired piece of DNA enzymatically


can be used to increase the amounts of DNA in samples to detectable levels. This may allow sequencing of genes, the diagnosis of genetic diseases or the detection of viruses.

genomic libraries

can be made by cutting up the entire genome with restrictions enzymes and inserting the fragments into bacterial plasmids or phages

e. coli

is used to produce protein using rDNA because it is easily grown and its genomics are well understood


small circular DNA molecule that replicates independently of the chromosome, self replicating pieces of DNA

thermus aquaticus

produces DNA polymerase


use virus as vectors


use plasmid as vectors


electrical current forms small pores in membranes to insert foreign DNA into cells


cells take up DNA from surrounding environment to insert foreign DNA into cells

protoplast fusion

enzymatically remove the cells to insert foreign DNA into cells

vectors must have

ORI region

shuttle vectors

can exist in several different species carrying cloned DNA sequences between species


seperate strands of DNA

gene gun

shoot foreign DNA directly through the cell wall using tungsten or gold coated with foreign DNA, helium bursts shoot them into the cell


using a small glass pipette, DNA is injected into the cytoplasm of the cell


does not go through translation

complementary DNA

does not have introns


lipid A, endotoxin, must be removed from products

five ways of inserting DNA into the cell

gene gun, microinjection, vectors, electroporation, transformation, protoplast fusion

In nature, the function of restriction enzymes is to

destroy phage DNA

sequencing a genome provides

the order of nucleotides

the shotgun sequencing technique

put RFLPs in the order they occur in a chromosome

dna fingerprints are

restriction fragments

restriction enzymes were first discovered with the observation that

phage DNA is destroyed in a host cell

the fourth step to genetically modify a cell


what is the second enzyme used to make cDNA


if you put a gene in a virus, the next step in genetic modification would be


pieces of human DNA stored in yeast cells


a population of cells carrying a desired plasmid


self-replicating DNA for transmitting a gene from one organism to another


a gene that hybridizes with mRNA


dna cutting enzymes that often form sticky ends

restriction enzymes

self replicating dna molecule used as a carrier to transmit a gene from one organism to another


an enzyme that links short peices of dna into longer pieces

dna ligase

an enzyme that links nucleotides to form DNA

dna polymerase

short segments of single stranded dna used to recognize a dna sequence in a gene


these stretches of dna in eukaryotes do not code for proteins


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