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Terms in this set (75)
Tends to stress the individual as the important unit
Tend to value the social group
Percent of countries Individualistic vs Collectivist
What two things do Individualistic Societies value?
What two things do Collectivist Societies value?
Individualistic: Chosen Bond (husband/wife)
Collectivist: Blood Bond (parent/child/sibling)
When presented with the "strongest bond question:"
What bond is closest for people Individualistic Societies?
What bond is closest for people in Collectivist Societies?
Collectivist foreign people applying for jobs in the USA are TOO MODEST
Implication of Collectivist vs Individualistic (job interviews)
Is the USA Individualistic or Collectivist?
The interface between biology and psychology
23 pairs of chromosomes
How many pairs of chromosomes in a cell?
Egg is represented by
X or Y
Sperm is represented by
Female (represented by)
Male (represented by)
Mistakes that happen at the time of conception
Once happens, spreads to all the cells
2 Things About Chromosomal Abnormalities
NOT Correctable with our technology
(could get there soon though)
Can Chromosomal Abnormalities be corrected with our technology today?
Problem w/ 21st pair (3 Chromosomes instead of 2)
What is Down's Syndrome?
Age of mother (older the mother, the more likely to have a child with Down's Syndrome)
What is Down's Syndrome linked with?
Shorter life expectancy
Affectionate, often sheltered by families
Four non-physical characteristics of people with Down's Syndrome
Small, rounded heads
Irregularly spaced teeth
Two physical characteristics of people with Down's Syndrome
Extra chromosome in 23rd pair (XXY)
What is Klinefelter's Syndrome?
Born male with penis, but enlarged breasts
Three Characteristics of Klinefelter's syndrome
Only one chromosome in 23rd pair (X)
What is Turner's Syndrome
Overall normal intelligence (could be low in some areas)
Most fetuses with loss of chromosome die, but this is the rare exception
Three Characteristics of Turner's Syndrome
Extra chromosome in 23rd pair (XYY)
What is XYY Syndrome?
Have problems with impulse control (but not impossible to control)
Four Characteristics of XYY Syndrome
Each system has a critical period during which it is maximally sensitive to growth stimulation and maximally vulnerable to disruptive factors
The learning that occurs during the first day or so of the animal's life when it attaches itself emotionally to the first MOVING object it sees or hears (like with ducklings)
The duckling will avoid anything (including mother) and will probably die.
What happens if imprinting doesn't happen in the first 48 hours (duckling doesn't see/hear anything move)?
When children are born with sex organs inappropriate to their true genotypic sex
What is the critical period for sexual identification [how long would be too long to wait for changing the sex organs of pseudohermaphrodites? (to prevent adjustment problems)]
Should we correct abnormalities? (we could prevent by testing parents, or even splice DNA to fix it at birth)
Should we know the future of our health (by looking at DNA/chromosomes, would we want to know the predictions?)
Two Ethical Issues for Chromosome Manipulation Ideas
Development of thinking
Action-directed thoughts that correspond to features and requirements of the environment
Inner-directed thoughts (wishes, dreams, etc.)
Is most psych research on Realistic or Autistic thinking?
Swiss researcher on cognitive development
Kids start as this, believe appearance = reality
Formal Operational Period
4 Stages that ALL kids go through (but at different rates)
Perceive discrepancy between how they think and the environment
LEAP to next stage
How kids advance to next stage of cognitive development
Process whereby new elements are changed to make them more similar to existing ones (change WHAT'S OUT THERE to fit you)
Process whereby previously developed structures are changed on the basis of new experiences (change YOU to fit what's out there)
Separation of self/objects
Causal thinking (phenomenalism)
Idea that objects exist even when not visible
belief objects can be related even if they occur in different places or w/ no direct contact (no ACTUAL cause and effect, just PERCEIVED relationship)
Nominal realism (outgrow by end of this stage)
Confuse names of objects with objects they stand for (can only handle one name for everything)
Knowledge that the amount of a substance is unchanged even though its appearance is unchanged (sees that appearances can deceive)
Only when kids are reach point of maturation (disequilibrium)
Does training help kids reach next stage?
Formal Operational Period
Over-reliance on verbal responses
Piaget argues cognition develops best without formal education
Criticisms of Piaget's Steps of Development
Separated mothers from infants, and gave the infants surrogates (basically pretend "dummies") and performed experiments to study attachment/bonds
Harlow's Monkey Studies
4 Types of Love (Harlow's Stages)
First 2 Weeks of life: Warmth
After 2 Weeks: Contact Comfort
Warmth vs Contact Comfort (in infant mother stage, which is more important?)
In most cases, they would be hesitant, but then go back to the mother.
EXCEPT with Ice Water: bond was broken
Monster Mother Findings (when dummies "abused" baby monkeys, did the bond break?
When the baby is a premature baby
When is child abuse more likely?
Depression that occurs when an infant is permanently separated from the mother, from 6-12 months of age, and placed in an institution
Anaclitic Depression Symptoms
When monkeys grow up isolated with dummy mother, there are deficits in social play. They are hurt in playing (monkeys play fight). They don't learn to be submissive.
Findings about Peer Love and Social Play
When monkeys grow up isolated with dummy mother, there are deficits in heterosexual love (don't know mating positions)
Findings about Heterosexual Love
When monkeys grow up isolated with dummy mother, there are deficits in parent-infant love. (Avoid babies or chew off parts of them)
Findings about Parent-Infant Love
Ainsworth - Strange Situation
When moms and babies were observed in a lab, researchers followed the comings/goings of the mom. The baby gets upset, always, when the mom leaves, but two types of attachments were discovered when the mom returned.
Type of attachment when the baby acts happy when the mom comes back
Anxious (Insecure) Attachment
Type of attachment when the baby avoids or acts ambivalent when the mom comes back
Secure babies cried less
Secure babies less upset about coming and going
Secure babies' mothers responds based on infants needs
(Anxious/insecure babies' mothers focus on own needs)
Findings about attachment after following mothers/babies at home (same results as in lab)
Secure attachment at age 1 = better problem solving at age 2
Problem solving for securely attached vs anxiously attached babies
Secure attachment at age 1 = better social play at age 3.5
Social Play for securely attached vs anxiously attached babies
Secure attachment at age 1 = better romance in adulthood
Romance for securely attached vs anxiously attached babies
Small Child:Caregiver Ratio is best
Continuity is important (stable environment)
2 Findings of Daycare
Experience and Learning
Researchers who emphasize _______ see development as a slow, continuous shaping process
Researchers who emphasize _______ see development as a sequence of genetically predisposed steps
Temperament is stable
Temperament vs Social Attitudes: Which is stable and which isn't?
Authoritariuan (expect obedience, impose rules: creates kids with less social skill and self-esteem)
Permissive (Opposite of strict: creates immature/aggressive kids)
Negligent (Uninvolved: creates kids with poor academic and social outcomes)
Authoritative (confrontive/demanding, but fair: creates kids with highest self esteem, self reliance, social competence)
Four Main Parenting Styles
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
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