9 terms

2. Animals and Human Language: The Study of Language - George Yule

communicative signals
behavior used intentionally to provide information. saying something with the express intention to communicate something.
informative signals
behavior that provides information, usually unintentionally. signs like sneezing or fidgeting that although informing some aspect about you, may no the less be unintentional.
Properties of Human Language
communication is not a distinguishing feature of human language; all animal communicate one way or the other. However it does have some very clear distinctions. There are 6: reflexivity, displacement, arbitrariness, productivity, cultural transmission and duality.
1. Reflexivity (Properties of Human Language)
a special property of human language that allows language to be used to think and talk about language itself
2. Displacement (Properties of Human Language)
a property of language that allows users to talk about things and events not present in the immediate environment (some other place, some other time)
3. Arbitrariness (Properties of Human Language)
words only arbitrarly connected to what they stand. the lack of relation between the word that identifies an object and the object itself.
4. Cultural Transmission (Properties of Human Language)
language we acquire la gauge from cultural exposure to it. And not directly from our parents genes lie the color of our hair. A can't on the other hand, will still meow even when raised by people.
5. productivity (Properties of Human Language)
a property of language that allows users to create new expressions, also called "creativity" or "open-endedness"; the potential number of utterances is infinite, as opposed to the limited range of animal utterances. The limited utterances in animals has a fixed reference: a property of a communication system whereby each signal is fixed as relating to one particular object or occasion
6. duality (Properties of Human Language)
a property of language whereby linguistic forms have two simultaneous levels of sound production and meaning, also called "double articulation": the distinct sounds of letters and the distinct meaning of combinations of letters. D, O N, E, done, node.