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Terms in this set (65)
What are axial skeletons?
Include the bones at the core of an endoskeleton
What are appendicular skeletons?
Include the bones found in the appendages as well as the pectoral and pelvic girdle
What are the 5 types of bones?
Long, short, flat, sesamoid, and irregular
What are long bones?
Are longer than they are wide and are made mainly out of cortical bone with a few pockets of cancellous bone
What are 3 examples of long bones?
Femur, radius, and ulna
What is the epiphyses?
Are the bumpy parts at the ends of long bones that contain a spongey bone containing red bone marrow
What is hematopoiesis?
Process where stem cells create new blood cells which occurs in red bone marrow
What is the diaphysis?
Is simply the long hollow shaft between the bumpy epiphysis
What covers the outside of the diaphysis?
What is the hollow part of the diaphysis called?
The medullary cavity?
What does the medullary cavity contain?
Yellow bone marrow which is essentially just energy stored as fat
What is the medullary cavity line by?
What are metaphyses?
Are similar in structure to epiphyses and are found between the medullary cavity and the epiphyseal plate
What are epiphyseal plates made of?
Where do epiphyseal plates lie?
Between an epiphysis and and metaphysis
How do epiphyseal plates grow and lengthen?
They grow in the direction of the metaphyses and but lengthen toward the diaphysis
What are short bones?
They are cuboidal so they are as wide as they are long
What are 2 examples of short bones?
Carpals of the wrist or the tarsals of the ankle
What are 2 examples of flat bones?
Sternum and bones forming the skull
What are sesamoid bones?
Are embedded with tendons to increase the muscles leverage on the bone it is attaching to
What is the most common sesamoid bone?
The patella (kneecap)
What are 2 examples of irregular bones?
Bones of the pelvis and spine
What is the cortical bone?
The outer layer of bone
What are osteons?
Are considered the functional unit of cortical bone and are multi-layered cylinders that extend parallel to the bones long axis
What is the Haversian canal?
The canal located at the center of an osteons
What are lamellae?
The layers of an osteon
Ehat do Haversian canals contain?
Blood vessels which supply nutrients to various types of bone cells living in lacunae
What are lacunae?
Small spaces between lamellae that house bone cells
What do canaliculi connect?
Lacunae and Haversian canals of a single osteon
What do Volkmann's canals connect?
Adjacent Haversian systems to the periosteum
What is cancellous bone?
Is the inner network of bone that contains a web of trabeculae (usually softer and more flexible that cortical bone)
What are osteoprogenitors?
Are immature precursor cells which mature into osteoblasts
What are osteoblasts and do they have one nucleus or multinucleated?
Function to build bone; single nucleus
What are osteoclasts and do they have a single nucleus or multinucleated?
They resorb bone and come from monocytes and are multinucleated
What is bone remodeling?
The constant back and forth between ossification and resorption
What is the parathyroid hormone?
Is secreted by the parathyroid gland and increases calcium when it is low in the bloody by stimulating osteoclasts and depressing osteoblasts
What is vitamin D?
Increases calcium in the blood by decreasing the number of osteoclasts and stimulates more PTH
What is calcitonin?
Is secreted by the thyroid gland and it tones down calcium in the blood when it is too high by decreasing osteoclast activity
What is the organic component of bone matrix?
Osteoid which contains proteins and type I collagen fibers
What is the inorganic component of bone matrix?
Hydroxyapatite which gives bones density and strength
What is intramembranous ossification?
Is when bone is created directly within a fibrous membrane
Which type of ossification is more common?
What kind of bones are primarily made through intramembranous ossification?
What is endochrondral ossification?
Is when bones are created indirectly
What bones are made through endochrondral ossification?
What 4 things are included in fibrous connective tissue?
Tendons, ligaments, periosteum and endosteum
What is the difference between a tendon and a ligament
A tendon connects muscles to bone while ligaments connect bones to other bones
What exactly is the periosteum?
Is a protective fibrous membrane that covers cortical bone
What are the 2 sub-layers of the periosteum?
Highly innervated and vascularized outer fibrous layer and an inner/cambium layer which has collagen fibers that allow for attachement of the periosteum to the cortical bone beneath
What is the endosteum?
Is a single layer membrane that lies between cortical and cancellous bone
What is cartilage?
Is a complex substance that is avascular and not innervated
What are chrondroblasts?
Are responsible for building cartilage
What is collagen important for?
Resisting tension and is the most common protein in mammals
What is elastin important for?
Important for elastic properties
What is hyaline cartilage?
Provides support and cushions joints at the ends of long bones and absorbs shock
Where can hyaline cartilage be found (3)?
In between the ribs and sternum and in the nose and the trachea
What is fibrous cartilage?
Provides rigidity and resists tension due to its many collagen protein fibers
Where is fibrous cartilage found? (2)
In intervertebral discs and knee meniscus
What is elastic cartilage?
Is made of a matrix that is similar to hyaline cartilage but it contains more elastin proteins
Where is elastic cartilage found?
In the ears and epiglottis
What are synthroses?
Dense fibrous joints between bones that do not move
What are amphiarthroses?
Cartilaginous joints between bones that partially move
What are diathroses?
Synovial joints between bones that are fully movable
What are the 6 synovial joints?
Pivot, hinge, saddle, plane, condylar, ball and socket (unstable)
What are the 5 things that a synovial joint contains?
Bones, articular cartilage covering opposing epiphyses, ligaments, fibrous joint capsule, and synovial fluid lubricant within the joint cavity
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