US History - Revolutionary War p.3-5
Terms in this set (25)
The Battles of Lexington and Concord
A 1775 conflict between colonial minutemen & British soldiers attempting to take the colonists' large store of arms; began the Revolutionary War, British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston. Massachusetts began to prepare for war by collecting supplies in concord. British planned to destroy supply base, but the bostonians heard and Paul Revere and William Dawes rode to warn the Colonist troops. 700 British versus 70 Americans. When british returned 1000s of militia appeared, trapping the british.
Where all the weapons were, retirement fort for British Troops., American revolutionary troops led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured this place in NY from the British in May 1775 and take home the canons.
Second Continental Congress
1775: Consisted of armed colonists who were demanding their rights. They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence. This was created to for the purpose of finding a way to clothe, feed, fund and outfit the continental army.
A new type of soldier who were voluteer fighters and sharp shooters that hid in the wood and had knowledge of the land., The irregular American troops who played a crucial role in swaying the neutral civilian population toward the Patriot cause
Irish sharpshooter (the best sharpshooter) under Daniel Morgan who killed British General Simon Fraser
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778. They built 400 huts in 90 days that each housed a dozen soldiers. A 4th of troops (2000 men sick) died here from disease and malnutriton. Washington's leadership kept his men in line. Small Pox spread from British to Americans on prison ships (4 out of 10 die) so they try inoculation. Steuben comes and trains troops
Barren Von Steuben
A gay Prussian army officer who came to help Washington; drilled the troops at Valley Forge and turned them to a fighting force. He had order, instilled discipline, hygiene, wrote manual for training militiamen and introduced Bayonet fighting.
Spies in New York
They were led by washington and passed information to rebels using invisible ink to send messages to General Washington and using a chain of spies to deliver messages.
Battle at Yorktown
On October 1781 in Virginia Americans trap the British. The final battle of the American Revolution. It was in Virginia where British General Cornwallis surrendered to Washington. British then begins negotiation of peace.
Battle of Bunker HIll
First major battle of the Revolutions. On June 17, 1775 16,000 militiamen met the British in Boston. June 16 Colonel William Prescott and his men were sent to fortify Bunker hill but went to Breed's Hill instead. British lost 1000 soldiers while Americans only lost 400. Even though Americans lost it was still a moral victory for them. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths. (Bloodiest Battle)
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed this act was forbidding all further trade with the colonies. Before this, on July 6th Americans declared war on Great Britain. King then sent 30,000 German mercenary troops.
Attempt to Capture Canada
It was a failed attempt by Benedict Arnold and Richard Montgomery of seizing the town of Quebec because of a snowstorm.
Jan 15, 1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine, who was an englishman that arrives in tho colonies in 1774, that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation. It had common, colorful, blunt, direct and aggressive language that was easy to understand. This spread through the colonies quickly.
Declaration of Independence
The document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain. On July 2, 1776 Richard Henry Lee, who was from Virginia, wrote just the declaration. While on July 4, 1776 Thomas Jefferson explained the independence. It was based on english arguments during the Glorious Revolution (when William and Mary replaced James II).
Audience of Declaration of Independence
The colonies, England and rest of the world were the intended recipients of this important document.
This way of fighting was polite, organized and detached.
This was similar to Indian's way of fighting, where it was disorganized, impolite and messy.
British Advantages to War
The British were trained, had manpower, equipment/firepower, a navy and money.
American Advantages to War
The Colonists had knowledge of the land, a free fighting style and had a cause/motivation where they fought for their freedom and their lives.
British Disadvantages to War
The British had supply issues (had to cross 3000 miles), communication issues (got news and orders late because of the great distance from homeland). They also didn't have the motivation the colonists had, so they did not care as much. They also did not know the land very well while the Colonists did.
Battle of Saratoga
American victory over British troops in 1777 that was a turning point in the American Revolution. Victory results in public alliance with France. The navy becomes more powerful, stronger troops and there are more supplies and resources. British tried to unite three of its armies but one got lost due to communication issues, one was defeated before they got halfway to Albany, and the last one was defeated here.
Battle of Brooklyn
Also know as the Battle of Long Island, British won and forced Americans to leave New York. It was the first time the British and the colonists met on an open battlefield. The colonies were losing but luckily the night came and Washington was able to get his troops to escape the British, because there was a thick coating of fog. Washington set up the troops here.
Battle of Princeton
British take NY and chase Washing to NJ. Militia scattered and december 1776 Washing crosses Delaware river to Trenton. NJ to surprise 900 Hessian mercenaries. There they defeat Lord Cornwallace. A week after the Battle at Trenton, Washington left a few men to tend some campfires and fool the enemy again. He quietly marched his army to this place, where they surprised and beat a British force. New Jersey turned Patriot. This battle helped the American morale.
Battle of Kings Mountain
A battle between the loyalists and patriots. South wanted to be separate from the North. Patriot were victorious through capturing and killing 1,200 loyalists. Bloodiest battle since Bunker Hill. Struck terror among British army.
British colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. Relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureaucrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government.
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