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51 terms

chapter 6

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Indus Civilization
2600-1500 BCE
Maurya Dynasty
323-185 BCE
Emperor Ashoka
greatest Maurya ruler, converted to Buddhism (reign 272-231 BCE)
Shunga, Andrha, and Kushan Dynasties
185 BCE-320 CE
Gupta and Post-Gupta Periods
320-647
Medieval Period
7th-12th centuries
Buddha's birth as Prince Siddhartha Gautama
563 BCE
Buddha
Enlightened One
Siddhartha
An Indian prince who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming 'enlightened' he enunciated the principles of Buddhism
bodhisattva
in Buddhist thought, a potential Buddha who chooses not to achieve enlightenment in order to help save humanity
bhakti
loving devotion to a deity leading to salvation and Nirvana in Hinduism
Buddha Shakyamuni
...
jataka
tales of the past lives of the Buddha
mudra
in Buddhism and Hinduism iconography, a stylized and symbolic hand gesture
yoga/yogi
a method for controlling the body and relaxing the mind used in later Indian religion to yoke or unite the practitioner to the divine
Buddhism
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
samsara
in Hindu belief, the rebirth of the soul into a succession of lives
dharma
in Buddhism, moral law based on the Buddha's teaching
nirvana
in Buddhism and Hinduism, a blissful state brought about by absorption of the individual soul or consciousness into the supreme spirit. also called moksha
karma
in Vedic religions, the ethical consequences of a person's life, which determines his or her fate
circumambulation
in Buddhist worship, walking around the stupa in a clockwise direction, a process intended to bring the worshiper into harmony with the cosmos
stupa
a large, mound-shaped Buddhist shrine
chaitya hall
a South Asian rock-cut temple hall having a votive stupa at one end
torana
gateway in the stone fence around a stupa, located at the cardinal points of the compass
yakshi
lesser local female Buddhist and Hindu divinities. goddesses associated with fertility and vegetation
yaksha
lesser local male Buddhist and Hindu divinities. represented as fleshy but powerful males
Vedas
Sanskrit compilations of religious learning including hymns. (Veda means "knowledge")
Upanishads
South Asian religious texts of 800-500 BCE that introduced the concepts of samsara, karma, and moksha
sutra
in Buddhism, an account of a sermon by or a dialogue involving the Buddha. a scriptural account of the Buddha
darshan
in Hindu worship, seeing images of the divinity and being seen by the divinity
mandala
Sankrit term for the sacred diagram of the universe
Shiva
Hindu god. the Destroyer, but is also a regenerative force. when presented in human forms he often has multiple limbs and heads, signs of superhuman nature. sometimes he has a third eye on his forehead (emblem of his all-seeing nature). Shiva rides the bull Nandi and often carries a trident
Vishnu
Hindu god. Preserver of the Universe. frequently portrayed with four arms holding various attributes. when evil forces of the universe become too strong he descends to restore balance and assumes different forms (boar, fish, tortoise, Krishna, and Buddha himself)
garbha griha
in Hindu temples, the cella, the holy inner sanctum, for the cult image or symbol
shikhara
the beehive-shaped tower of a northern-style Hindu temple
linga
in Hindu art, the depiction of Shiva as a phallus or cosmic pillar
amalaka
in Hindu temple design, the large flat disk with ribbed edges surmounting the beehive-shaped tower
Robed male figure, Pakistan. 2600-1900
Seal with seated figure in yogic posture, Pakistan. 2600-1900 BCE
Lion capital of column, India. 250 BCE
Great Stupa, India. 3rd century BCE to 1st century CE
Meditating Buddha, Pakistan, 2nd century CE
The life and death of the Buddha, Pakistan. 2nd century CE
Bodhisattva Padmapani, India. second half of 5th century
Boar avatar of Vishnu rescuing the earth, India. early 5th century
Vishnu Temple, India. early 6th century
Rock-cut rathas, Mamallaparum, India. second half of 7th century
Shiva as Nataraja, Punjai. 1000
Borobudur, Indonesia. 800
Reclining Vishnu, Cambodia. 11th century
Angkor Wat, Cambodia. first half of 12th century