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EMT Final Exam
Get Quizlet's official NREMT - 1 term, 1 practice question, 1 full practice test
Terms in this set (391)
Which of the following statements regarding breathing adequacy is correct?
patients breathing shallowly may require assisted ventilation despite a normal respiratory rate.
A man was found unresponsive in his bed at home. There is no evidence of injury and the patient's medical history is not know. The patient's face is cyanotic, yet the pulse oximeter reads 98%. Which of the following would MOST likely explain this?
carbon monoxide poisoning
Which of the following patients should you place in the recovery position?
a 31-year-old semiconscious male with low blood sugar and adequate breathing
A patient who is suspected of being hypoxic and is breathing adequately should be given supplemental oxygen with a:
Which of the following structures is NOT found in the upper airway?
How does CPAP improve oxygenation and ventilation in patients with certain respiratory problems?
it forces the alveoli open and pushes oxygen across the alveolar membrane
Irregular respirations characterized by an increasing rate and depth of breathing followed by periods of apnea are called:
Which of the following statements regarding normal gas exchange in the lungs is correct?
oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the alveolar walls and capillaries
Which of the following statements regarding oxygen is correct?
oxygen supports the combustion process and may cause a fire
You are performing mouth-to-mask ventilations with oxygen connected and set at a flow rate of 1 L/min. What percentage of oxygen is your patient receiving?
When testing a mechanical suctioning unit, you should turn on the device, clamp the tubing, and ensure that it generates a vacuum pressure of more than:
300 mm Hg
The physical act of moving air into and out of the lungs is called:
What occurs when a patient is breathing very rapidly and shallowly?
air moves primarily in the anatomic dead space and does not participate in pulmonary gas exchange
A 19-year-old female is found unconscious by her roommate. Your primary assessment reveals that her breathing is inadequate. As you insert an oropharyngeal airway, she begins to gag violently. You should:
remove the airway and be prepared to suction her oropharynx
The nasopharyngeal airway is MOST beneficial because it:
can maintain a patent airway in a semiconscious patient with a gag reflex
Which of the following patients is breathing adequately?
a conscious male with respirations of 19 breaths/min and pink skin
During your assessment of patient with respiratory distress, you hear wheezing when listening to breath sounds. This indicates:
a lower airway obstruction
Which of the following is the MOST reliable indicator of adequately performed bag-valve mask ventilations in an apneic adult with a pulse?
adequate rise of the chest when squeezing the bag
In which of the following patients would the head tilt-chin lift maneuver be the MOST appropriate method of opening the airway?
a 37-year-old female who is found unconscious in her bed
You are ventilating a patient with a stoma; however, air is escaping from the mouth and nose. To prevent this, you should:
seal the mouth and nose
A 30-year-old male presents with acute shortness of breath, widespread hives, and facial swelling. He denies any past medical history and takes no medications. During your assessment, you hear wheezing over all the lung fields. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg and his heart rate is 110 beats/min. In addition to giving him high-flow oxygen, the MOST important treatment for this patient is:
A 59-year-old with a history of emphysema complains of an acute worsening of his dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain following a forceful cough. Your assessment reveals that he has a barrel-shaped chest, unilaterally diminished breath sounds, and tachycardia. What is the MOST likely cause of this patient's condition?
A pleural effusion is MOST accurately defined as:
fluid accumulation outside the lung
Crackles (rales) are caused by _____.
air passing through fluid
His parents tell you that their son has had a chest infection for the past two days and when they took him to their family doctor, they were told it was likely due to the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). They have kept his well hydrated, but the infection seems to have gotten worse. On auscultation, you hear decreased air entry bilaterally with fine expiratory wheezes and the occasional coarse wet crackle. Based on this information, your patient is most likely suffering from:
In order for efficient pulmonary gas exchange to occur:
oxygen and carbon dioxide must be able to freely diffuse across the alveolar-capillary membrane
In what area of the lungs does respiration occur?
When auscultating the lungs of a patient with respiratory distress, you hear adventitious sounds. This means that the patient has:
abnormal breath sounds
Which of the following conditions would be LEAST likely to result in hypoxia?
Which of the following is a genetic disorder that predisposes the patient to repeated lung infections?
Which of the following is MOST characteristic of adequate breathing?
24 breaths/min with bilaterally equal breath sounds and pink skin
Which of the following must be assessed in every respiratory patient?
you are assisting an asthma patient with his prescribed metered-dose inhaler. After the patient takes a deep breath and depresses the inhaler, you should:
instruct him to hold his breath for as long as he comfortably can
You are attending to a 3-year-old male patient who is presenting with severe shortness of breath. His parents report that he has had a cough and cold with a low grade fever for the past two days. They became worried today, as his level of distress has increased dramatically. On assessment, the patient is sitting upright and making high-pitched noises with each breath. Based on this information, the patient is most likely suffering from:
viral infection of the upper respiratory tract
You are attending to a 54-year-old female patient in a homeless shelter. The patient tells you that she has not gotten over it. She has been tired and keeps waking up at night, sweating. She has been coughing up green sputum occasionally and has been experiencing episodes of chest pain that get worse when she breathes. Based on this information, your patent is most likely suffering from:
Your patient has a chronic respiratory condition. His stimulus to breathe is triggered by low oxygen levels in the blood. This is known as the
The mental status of a patient who has experienced a generalized seizure:
is likely to improve over a period of 5 to 30 minutes
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when:
a small clot in a cerebral artery causes temporary symptoms
When caring for a patient with documented hypoglycemia, you should be MOST alert for:
maintain her airway with manual head positioning, suction her airway to remove the vomitus, insert a nasopharyngeal airway, and administer high-flow oxygen
You arrive at a local grocery store approximately 5 minutes after a 21-year-old female stopped seizing. She is confused and disoriented; she keeps asking you what happened and tells you that she is thirsty. Her brother, who witnessed the seizure, tells you taht she takes valproate (Depakote) for her seizures, but she has not taken it in a few days. He also tells you that she had diabetes. In addition to administering oxygen, you should:
monitor her airway and breathing status and assess her blood glucose level
are usually benign but should be evaluated
The spinal cord exits the cranium through the:
The three major parts of the brain are the:
cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem
The most basic functions of the body, such as breathing, blood pressure, and swallowing, are controlled by the:
When transporting a stable stroke patient with a paralyzed extremity, place the patient in a:
recumbent position with the paralyzed side down
You are assessing the arm drift component of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale on a 60-year-old woman. When she holds both of her arms out in front of her and closes her eyes, both of her arms immediately fall to her sided. You should:
repeat the arm drift test, but move the patient's arms into position yourself
Which of the following conditions would MOST likely affect the entire brain?
respiratory failure or cardiopulmonary arrest
Which of the following MOST accurately describes a simple partial seizure?
a seizure that begins in one extremity
Your patient opens his eyes, moans, and pulls away from you when you pinch his trapezius muscle. You should assign a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of:
Individuals with chronic alcoholism are predisposed to intracranial bleeding and hypoglycemia secondary to abnormalities in the:
Which of the following is a metabolic cause of a seizure?
Which of the following conditions would be the LEAST likely to mimic the signs and symptoms of a stroke?
You are dispatched to a residence for a 66-year-old male who, according to family members, has suffered a massive stroke. Your primary assessment reveals that the patient is unresponsive, apneic, and pulseless. You should:
initiate CPR and attach an AED as soon as possible
You are caring for a 70-year-old female with signs and symptoms of an acute stroke. She is conscious, has secretions in her mouth, is breathing at a normal rate with adequate depth, and has an oxygen saturation of 96%. You should:
suction her oropharynx and transport immediately
Interruption of cerebral blood flow may result from all of the following, EXCEPT:
A 29-year-old pregnant woman has had severe vomiting for the last 2 days. Today, she is vomiting large amounts of blood. Her skin is cool and pale and she is tachycardic. The EMT should suspect:
A 30-year-old woman with a history of alcoholism presents with severe abdominal pain and is vomiting large amounts of bright red blood. Her skin is cool, pale, and clammy, her heart rate is 120 beats/min and weak; and her blood pressure is 70/50 mm Hg. Your MOST immediate action should be to:
protect her airway from aspiration
A 47-year-old male presents with severe abdominal pain of 3 hours' duration. His abdomen is distended and guarded. Your MOST important consideration for this patient should be to:
be alert for signs and symptoms of shock
A 59-year-old male presents with sudden-onset severe lower back pain. He is conscious and alert, but very restless and diaphoretic. Your assessment reveals a pulsating mass to the left of his umbilicus. You should:
administer oxygen and prepare for immediate transport
A young female presents with costovertebral angle tenderness. She is conscious and alert with stable vital signs. Which of the following organs is MOST likely causing her pain?
An important aspect in the treatment of a patient with severe abdominal pain is to:
provide emotional support en route to the hospital
For a patient with gastrointestinal complaint, it is MOST important for the EMT to _______.
identify whether the patient requires rapid transport
Most patients with abdominal pain prefer to:
lie on their side with their knees drawn into the abdomen
Pain that may be perceived at a distant point on the surface of the body, such as the back or shoulder, is called:
Peritonitis may result in shock because:
fluid shifts from the bloodstream into the body tissues
Urinary tract infections are more common in
When assessing a patient with abdominal pain, you should:
palpate the abdomen in a clockwise direction, beginning with the quadrant after the one the patient indicates is painful
Which of the following helps filter the blood and has no digestive function?
Which of the following may help reduce your patient's nausea?
Which of the following organs lies in the retroperitoneal space?
Which of the following statements regarding dialysis is correct?
patients who miss a dialysis treatment often present with weakness
Which of the following statements regarding the acute abdomen is correct?
the initial pain associated with an acute abdomen tends to be vague and poorly localized
Your patient complains of abdominal pain that occurs mostly at night or after eating fatty foods. You should suspect ______.
Your patient complains of chronic "burning" stomach pain that improves after eating. You should suspect:
peptic ulcer disease
A 37-year-old female with a history of diabetes presents with excessive urination and weakness of 2 days' duration. Her blood glucose level reads 320 mg/dL. If this patient's condition is not promptly treated, she will MOST likely develop:
irreversible renal failure
A 66-year-old woman experienced a sudden onset of difficulty breathing. She has a history of type 2 diabetes and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). On the basis of her medical history, which of the following should the EMT suspect?
A 75-year-old male with type 1 diabetes presents with chest pain and a general feeling of weakness. He tells you that he took his insulin today and ate a regular meal approximately 2 hours ago. You should treat this patient as though he is experiencing:
a heart attack
A man finds his 59-year-old wife unconscious on the couch. He states that she takes medications for type 2 diabetes. He further tells you that his wife has been ill recently and has not eaten for the past 24 hours. Your assessment reveals that the patient is unresponsive. You should:
open and maintain her airway and assess breathing
A patient with an altered mental status; high blood glucose levels; and deep, rapid breathing may have a condition known as ______.
A patient with hypoglycemia will often present with which of the following signs/symptoms
pale, cool, and clammy skin
Classic signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include:
cool, clammy skin; weakness; tachycardia; and rapid respirations
During your assessment of a 19-year-old male, you are told that he is being treated with factor VIII. This indicates that:
he has hemophilia A
Excessive eating caused by cellular "hunger" is called:
In contrast to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes:
is caused by resistance to insulin at the cellular level
Proper procedure for administering oral glucose to a patient includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
ensuring the absence of a gag reflex
Symptomatic hypoglycemia will MOST likely develop if a patient:
takes too much of his of her prescribed insulin
The EMT should assess for hypoglycemia in small children with a severe illness or injury because:
children cannot store excess glucose as effectively as adults
The main function of the endocrine system is to______.
The normal blood glucose level is between:
80 and 120 mg/dL
The two main types of cells contained in blood are called ______.
erythrocytes and leukocytes
Which of the following conditions is the diabetic patient at an increased risk of developing?
Which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct?
the brain requires glucose as much as it requires oxygen
Which of the following statements regarding sickle cell disease is correct?
in sickle cell disease, the red blood cells are abnormally shaped and are less able to carry oxygen
You are treating a 40-year-old male with a documented blood sugar reading of 480 mg/dL. The patient is semiconscious and breathing shallowly, and is receiving assisted ventilation from your partner. You should recognize that definitive treatment for this patient includes:
A 19-year-old female was stung multiple times on the legs by fire ants. She states that she is allergic to fire ants, but does not carry her own epinephrine. The patient is conscious and alert and complains of pain to the area of the bites. Her blood pressure is 122/70 mm Hg, her pulse is 100 beats/min and strong, and her respirations are 18 breaths/min and unlabored. You should:
administer oxygen and transport her to the hospital
A 37-year-old male is having a severe allergic reaction to penicillin. He does not have an epinephrine auto-injector and your protocols do not allow you to carry epinephrine on the ambulance. How should you proceed with the treatment of this patient?
administer oxygen, transport at once, and request a paramedic intercept
After administering 0.3 mg of epinephrine via auto-injector to a 22-year-old woman with an allergic reaction, you note improvement in her breathing and dissipation of her hives. However, she is still anxious and tachycardic. You should:
monitor her closely but recall that anxiety and tachycardia are side effects of epinephrine
Anaphylaxis caused by stinging insects is typically an allergic reaction to _______ rather than the bit or sting itself.
all of these answers are correct
Anaphylaxis is MOST accurately defined as a(n):
extreme allergic reaction that may affect multiple body systems
At the site of the injury, signs and symptoms of an animal or insect bite or sting may include pain, localized heat, and a wheal, which appears as _______.
a raised, well-defined area of the skin
Care for a victim of an immunologic emergency who is severely hypotensive should include which of the following?
apply high-flow oxygen therapy, place the patient in a shock position, and help maintain the patient's body temperature
Patients may experience allergic reactions to which of the following substances?
all of these answers are correct
The adult epinephrine auto-injector delivers_____ mg of epinephrine, and the infant-child auto-injector delivers _____ mg.
The effects of epinephrine are typically observed within ____ following administration
The stinger from a honeybee should be:
scraped away from the skin
Urticaria is the medical term for:
When a foreign substance invades the body, the body will _____.
all of these answers are correct
When an allergic reaction proceeds to life-threatening anaphylaxis, it will usually do so ______.
quickly, within 30 minutes
Which of the following medications blocks the release of histamines?
Which of the following signs/symptoms are indicative of respiratory involvement of an allergic reaction?
tightness in the chest or throat
Which of the following sounds indicates swelling of the upper airway?
Victims of inhaled poisoning will require which of the follow?
transport to an emergency department for evaluation
How do poisons typically act to harm the body?
by changing the normal metabolism of cells or by destroying them
As you enter the residence of a patient who has possibly overdosed, you should:
be alert for personal hazards
When caring for a known alcoholic patient with severe trauma to the chest and abdomen, you should be concerned that:
internal bleeding may be profuse because prolonged alcohol use may impair the blood's ability to clot
Which of the following sets of vital signs would the EMT MOST likely encounter in a patient with acute cocaine overdose?
BP, 200/100 mm Hg; pulse, 150 beats/min
Hypotension, hypoventilation, and pinpoint pupils would be expected following an overdose of:
A 49-year-old male presents with confusion, sweating, and visual hallucinations. The patient's wife tells you that he is a heavy drinker and she thinks he had a seizure shortly before your arrival. This patient is MOST likely experiencing:
Most poisonings occur via the ____ route.
A person who routinely misuses a substance and requires increasing amounts to achieve the same effect is experiencing:
Heroin is an example of a(n):
Which of the following questions would be LEAST pertinent during the initial questioning of a patient who ingested a substance?
why was this substance ingested?
You receive a call to a residence where a man found his wife unresponsive on the couch. The patient's respiratory rate is 8 breaths/min,her breathing is shallow, her heart rate is 40 beats/min, and her pulse is weak. The husband hands you an empty bottle of hydrocodone (vicodin), which was refilled the day before. You should:
ventilate her with a BVM
Activated charcoal is given to patients who have ingested certain substances because it:
binds to the substance and prevents absorption
Which of the following statements regarding the Salmonella bacterium is correct?
The Salmonella bacterium itself causes food poisoning
The recommended treatment for absorbed or contact poisons includes _______.
safely removing or diluting the poisonous substance
An overdose of acetaminophen, the active ingredient in Tylenol, will MOST likely cause:
You and your paramedic partner are caring for a patient who ingested codeine, acetaminophen (Tylenol), and hydrocodone (Vicodin). The patient is unresponsive, his breathing is slow and shallow, and his pulse is slow and weak. Treatment for this patient should include:
assisted ventilation and naloxone (Narcan)
In an apparent suicide attempt, a 19-year-old female ingested a full bottle or amitriptyline (Elavil). At present, she is conscious and alert and states that she swallowed the pills approximately 30 minutes earlier. Her blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg, her pulse is 140 beats/min and irregular, and her respirations are 22 breaths/min with adequate depth. When transporting this patient, you should be MOST alert for:
seizures and cardiac arrhythmias
If the victim of a toxicologic emergency vomits, an EMT should____.
use appropriate personal protective equipment and examine the vomitus for pill fragments or other clues for patient care
Of the four avenues of poisoning, generally _____ is the most worrisome in terms of treatment to the EMS provider
A 20-year-old male has a large laceration to his wrist. He is holding a blood-soaked towel over the wound, but it continues to bleed rapidly. You should:
apply a tourniquet proximal to the wrist
Distributive shock occurs when:
widespread dilation of the blood vessels causes blood to pool in the vascular beds
Foods, medication, and insects are common causes of _____.
Hypovolemic shock caused by severe burns is the result of a loss of:
Shock due to severe infection is called:
To protect vital organs, the body compensates by directing blood flow away from organs that are more tolerant of low flow, such as:
When assessing a patient with signs and symptoms of shock, it is important to remember that:
blood pressure may be the last measurable factor to change in shock
Your patient is in shock, but the body's defense mechanisms are currently able to maintain adequate circulation. This is called _____.
A 25-year-old unrestrained female struck the steering wheel with her chest when her car hit a tree while traveling at a high rate of speed. She has signs and symptoms of shock, which you suspect are the result of intrathoracic bleeding. Which of the following interventions will provide this patient with the greatest chance for survival?
rapid transport to a trauma center
Which of the following injuries would MOST likely cause obstructive shock?
Which of the following statements regarding hemophilia is correct?
patients with hemophilia may bleed spontaneously
Circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells' oxygen, nutritional, and waste-removal needs is termed _______.
Hypovolemic shock occurs when:
the body cannot compensate for rapid blood loss
If applying a dressing to control the bleeding of a patient's arm, the EMT should ____.
all of these answers are correct
If direct pressure fails to immediately stop severe bleeding from an extremity, you should apply:
a tourniquet proximal to the injury
In older patients, the first indicator or nontraumatic internal bleeding may be:
weakness or dizziness
Internal bleeding into a fractured extremity is MOST often controlled by:
splinting the extremity
The severity of bleeding should be based on all of the following findings, EXCEPT:
systolic blood pressure
Whether you are using a commercial device or a stick and triangular bandage as a tourniquet, it is important to remember that:
the tourniquet should only be removed at the hospital because bleeding may return if the tourniquet is released
Which portion of the blood carries oxygen to and wastes away from body tissues?
red blood cells
Which of the following statements regarding crush syndrome is correct?
compromised arterial blood flow leads to crush syndrome and can occur when an area of the body is trapped for longer than 4 hours
In addition to severe bleeding, the MOST life-threatening complication associated with an open neck injury is:
an air embolism
When caring for a patient whose arm is covered with a dry chemical, you should:
brush away the chemical before flushing with water
Which of the following areas of the bod has the thinnest skin?
A 21-year-old male was working in an auto repair shop and sustained radiator burns to the anterior aspect of both arms and to his anterior chest. According to the rule of nines, this patient has burns that cover ____ of his BSA.
An 8-year-old male was bitten by a stray dog. He has a large laceration to the back of his left hand, which your partner covered with a sterile dressing and bandage. In addition to transporting the child to the hospital, you should:
report the incident to the appropriate authorities
Which of the following is a severe burn in a 65-year-old patient?
Partial-thickness burn to 20% of the BSA
A burn that is characterized by redness and pain is classified as a:
A 56-year-old male has an incomplete avulsion to his right forearm. After controlling any bleeding from the wound, you should:
replace the avulsed flap to its original position and cover it with a sterile dressing
As you approach a young male who was involved in an industrial accident, you note that his eyes are closed and that he is not moving. You can see several large contusions to his arms, a laceration to his forehead with minimal bleeding, and a closed deformity to his right leg. You should:
open his airway and assess his breathing status
A 39-year-old male was struck in the head by a baseball during a game. He is confused and has slurred speech. He has a large hematoma in the center of his forehead and cannot remember the events preceding the injury. After manually stabilizing his head and assessing his airway, you should:
administer high-flow oxygen
During your assessment of a patient who was shot in the abdomen, you notice a large entrance wound with multiple small puncture wounds surrounding it. This wound patter is MOST consistent with a:
A closed soft-tissue injury characterized by swelling and ecchymosis is called a(n):
Which of the following processes occurs during the inflammation phase of the healing process?
the immune system releases histamines, which cause vasodilation and increased capillary permeability, resulting in local redness and swelling
A 33-year-old male sustained an abdominal evisceration to the left lower quadrant of his abomen after he was cut with a large knife. After appropriately managing his ABCs and assessing him for other life-threatening injuries, how you should care for his wound?
cover it with moist, sterile gauze and secure with an occlusive dressing
You have applied a dressing and roller-gauze bandage to a laceration on the arm of a young female. During transport, she begins to complain of numbness and tingling in her hand. You should:
assess distal circulation and readjust the bandage as needed
Burns to pediatric patients are generally considered more serious than burns to adults because:
pediatric patients have more surface area relative to total body mass
Which of the following open soft-tissue injuries is limited to the superficial layer of the skin and results in the least amount of blood loss?
The sebaceous glands produce sebum, a material that:
waterproofs the skin and keeps it supple
In which of the following patients should you remove an impaled object?
a pulseless and apneic patient with a knife impaled in the back
A 30-year-old female presents with redness, inflammation, and pain to her left eye. During your assessment, you note that she is having difficulty keeping her eyes open. You should suspect that she is experiencing:
A 4-year-old female has a peanut lodged in the external auditory canal for her right ear. You should:
transport her to the emergency department
A 52-year-old unrestrained female struck the steering wheel with her face when her truck collided with another vehicle. She has obvious swelling to her face and several dislodged teeth. A visual exam of her mouth reveals minimal bleeding. She is conscious and alert with a blood pressure 130/80 mm Hg, a pulse of 110 beats/min, and respirations of 22 breaths/min with adequate tidal volume. You should:
fully immobilized her spine, attempt to locate the dislodged teeth, suction as needed, and transport
A 6-year-old female was riding her bicycle and struck a clothesline with her throat. She is breathing, but with obvious difficulty. Your assessment reveals a crackling sensation in the soft tissue of her neck and facial cyanosis. In addition to the appropriate airway management, the intervention that will MOST likely improve her chance of survival is:
rapidly transporting her to the hospital
A factory worker was splashed in the eyes with a strong acid chemical. He complains of intense pain and blurred vision. Your ambulance does not carry bottles of sterile saline or water. You should:
irrigate both eyes continuously for 20 minutes with plain water
Bleeding from soft-tissue injuries to the face is MOST effectively controlled with:
direct pressure using dry, sterile dressings
Following blunt trauma to the face, a 21-year-old male complains of a severe headache and decreased ability to move his eyes. This patient's clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:
a blowout fracture
If your patient swallows blood following facial trauma, there is an increased risk of ____.
Significant trauma to the face should increase the EMT's index of suspicion for a(n):
spinal column injury
The Adam's apple is:
the upper part of the larynx that is formed by the thyroid cartilage
The MOST significant complication associated with facial injuries is:
The superficial temporal artery can be palpated:
just anterior to the tragus
The upper jawbones are called the:
When a light is shone into the pupil:
it should become smaller in size
When caring for a patient with an open facial injury, the EMT's immediate priority should be to:
wear gloves and facial protection
When performing a full body scan, you should assess for_____.
When transporting a patient with a facial injury, it is MOST important to be as descriptive as possible with the hospital regarding the patient's injuries because:
they may need to call a specialist to see the patient
Which of the following statements regarding anterior nosebleeds is correct?
the usually originate from the septum area and bleed slowly
Which of the following statements regarding the vitreous humor is correct?
it is a clear, jellylike fluid near the back of the eye that cannot be replaced if it is lost
You are assessing a 59-year-old male and note that his pupils are unequal. He is conscious and alert. When obtaining his medical history, it is MOST pertinent to ask him if he:
has a history of eye surgeries
A short backboard or vest-style immobilization device is indicated for patients who:
are in a sitting position and are clinically stable
An epidural hematoma is MOST accurately defined as:
bleeding between the skull and dura mater
In a patient with a head injury, hypertension, bradycardia, and Biot respirations indicate:
herniation of the brain stem
In which of the following situations would the EMT be the LEAST likely to immobilize a patient's spine?
no distracting injuries or evidence of intoxication
The ______ contain(s) about 75% of the brain's total volume
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that circulates in between each meningeal layer
acts as a shock absorber for the brain and spinal cord
The frontal and parietal bones of the skull are especially susceptible to:
depressed skull fractures
The MOST common and serious complication of a significant head injury is:
The spinal cord is encased in and protected by the:
When immobilizing a patient on a long backboard, you should:
ensure that you secure the torso before securing the head
When the parasympathetic nervous system is activated:
the heart rate decreases and the blood vessels dilate
Which of the following head injuries would cause the patient's condition to deteriorate MOST rapidly?
Which of the following interventions may be used to help reduce intracranial pressure?
30-degree elevation of the head
Which of the following nerves allow sensory and motor impulses to be sent from one nerve directly to another?
Which of the following sets of vital signs depicts Cushing triad?
blood pressure, 190/110 mm Hg; pulse, 55 beats/min; respirations, 30 breaths/min
Which of the following statements regarding a basilar skull fracture is correct?
the absence of raccoon eyes or Battle sign does not rule it out
Which of the following statements regarding motor nerves is correct?
they carry information from the CNS to the muscles
The MOST reliable sign of a head injury is:
a decreased level of consciousness
The tough, fibrous outer meningeal layer is called the:
A female patient with a suspected head injury has slow, shallow breathing. The MOST appropriate treatment for her includes:
ventilation assistance to maintain an ETCO2 of 30 to 35 mm Hg
While jogging, a 19-year-old male experienced an acute onset of shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain. He is conscious and alert with stable vital signs. Your assessment reveals that he has diminished breath sounds over the left side of the chest. You should:
administer oxygen and transport to the hospital
An open pneumothorax occurs when:
air enter the pleural space from outside the body
Following a stab wound to the left anterior chest, a 5-year-old male presents with a decreased level of consciousness and signs of shock. Which of the following additional assessment findings should increase your index of suspicion for a cardiac tamponade?
engorged jugular veins
A spinal cord injury at the level of C7 would MOST likely result in:
paralysis of the intercostal muscles
A 28-year-old male was struck in the chest with a baseball bat during an altercation. He is conscious and alert and complains of severe chest pain. Your assessment reveals a large area of ecchymosis over the sternum and a rapid, irregular pulse. In addition to providing supplemental oxygen, you should:
prepare for immediate transport
Which of the following is most likely to cause immediate death?
Immediately life-threatening chest injuries must be found and managed during the ____.
Children are often "belly breathers" because ______.
their intercostal muscles are not developed
You respond to a residence for a 40-year-old female who was assaulted by her husband; the scene has been secured by law enforcement. Upon your arrival, you find the patient lying supine on the floor in the kitchen. She is semiconscious with severely labored breathing. Further assessment reveals a large bruise to the left anterior chest, jugular venous distention, and unilaterlly absent breath sounds. As your partner is supporting her ventilations, you should:
immediately request ALS support
A flail chest occurs when:
a segment of the chest wall is detached from the thoracic cage
You arrive at the scene of a major motor vehicle crash. The patient, a 50-year-old female, was removed from her vehicle prior to your arrival. Bystanders who removed her state that she was not wearing a seatbelt. The patient is unresponsive, tachycardic, and diaphoretic. Your assessment reveals bilaterally clear and equal breath sounds, a midline trachea, and collapsed jugular veins. You should be MOST suspicious that this patient has experienced a:
laceration of the aorta
A simple pneumothorax:
is commonly caused by blunt chest trauma
You have sealed the open chest wound of a 40-year-old male who was stabbed in the anterior chest. Your assessment reveals that he is experiencing increasing respiratory distress and tachycardia, and is developing cyanosis. You should:
partially remove the dressing
Closed chest injuries are typically caused by _____.
In order to avoid exacerbating a patient's injury, it is especially important to use extreme caution when providing positive-pressure ventilation to patients with a:
A man called EMS 12 hours after injuring his chest. Your assessment reveals a flail segment to the right side of the chest. This patient is experiencing respiratory distress and his oxygen saturation is 78%. His breath sounds are equal bilaterally and his jugular veins are normal. You should suspect:
If a patient with a chest injury is only able to inhale small amounts of air per breath, he or she:
must increase his or her respiratory rate to maintain adequate minute volume
When a person is lying supine at the end of exhalation, the diaphragm:
may rise as high as the nipple line
Patients with chest injuries will often present with ____.
The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by the:
You should suspect a kidney injury anytime the patient presents with____.
a hematoma in the flank region
In pediatric patients, the liver and spleen are _____.
larger in proportion to the abdomen
Which of the following organs would MOST likely bleed profusely when injured?
Compression injury is most likely due to which of the following?
improperly placed lab belt
Because the depth of an open abdominal wound is often difficult to determine:
prompt transport to the hospital is essential
Injuries to the external male genitalia_____.
are rarely life-threatening
You are transporting a patient with blunt abdominal trauma. The patient is unstable and is experiencing obvious signs and symptoms of shock. Your estimated time of arrival at the hospital is less than 10 minutes. After treating the patient appropriately, you should:
closely monitor him and reassess him frequently
When a hollow organ is punctured during a penetrating injury to the abdomen:
peritonitis may not develop for several hours
Placing a pregnant patient in a supine position during the third trimester of pregnancy:
may decrease the amount of blood that returns to the heart
Difficulty breathing and a sunken appearance of the anterior abdominal wall is MOST indicative of a required:
Your documentation on a sexual assault victim should _____.
be objective and factual
You are transporting a 42-year-old male who experienced blunt abdominal trauma. He is receiving oxygen at 12 L/min via a nonrebreathing mask and full spinal precautions have been applied. During your reassessment, you note his level of consciousness had decreased and his respirations have become shallow. You should:
insert an airway adjunct if he will tolerate it and begin assisting his ventilations with a BVM
All of the following are hollow abdominal organs, EXCEPT the:
When a patient stiffens the muscles of the abdomen, it is known as _______.
When should you visually inspect the external genitalia on your patient?
only when there is a complaint of severe pain or other injury
Abdominal pain, vomiting, and fever are most likely due to____.
Your presence is requested by law enforcement to assess a 33-year-old female who was sexually assaulted. The patient is conscious and obviously upset. As you are talking to her, you note an impressive amount of blood on her clothes in the groin area. Her blood pressure is 98/58 mm Hg, her pulse is 130 beats/min, and her respirations are 24 breaths/min. You should:
control any external bleeding, administer oxygen, and transport at once
Which of the following is true regarding injury to the kidneys?
injury to the kidneys usually indicates injury to other organs
Which of the following statements regarding abdominal eviscerations is correct?
the protruding organs should be kept warm and moist
A 54-year-old male experienced an avulsion to his penis when his foreskin got caught in the zipper of his pants. He was able to unzip his pants and remove the foreskin prior to your arrival. Your assessment reveals that he is in severe pain and that the avulsion is bleeding moderately. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
applying direct pressure with a dry, sterile dressing
An open fracture is MOST accurately defined as a fracture in which:
is the overlying skin is no longer intact
A 54-year-old male accidentally shot himself in the leg while cleaning his gun. You assessment reveals a small entrance wound to the medial aspect of his right leg. The exit wound is on the opposite side of the leg and is actively bleeding. The patient complains of numbness and tingling in his right foot. You should:
control the bleeding and cover the wound with a sterile dressing
Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries would MOST likely result in deformity?
During your assessment of a 29-year-old female with significant deformity to her left elbow, your are unable to palpate a radial pulse. Your transport time to the hospital is approximately 40 minutes. You should:
apply gentle manual traction in line with the limb and reassess for a pulse
Which of the following statements regarding compartment syndrome is correct?
compartment syndrome typically develops within 6-12 hours after an injury
When caring for a patient with a possible fracture of the scapula, the EMT should:
carefully assess the patient for breathing problems
Skeletal muscle is attached to the bone by tough, ropelike, fibrous structures called:
Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries would pose the greatest threat to a patient's life?
pelvic fracture with hypotension
A 17-year-old female dislocated her patella while playing soccer. Her knee is flexed and she complains of severe pain. You should:
keep her knee flexed and secure it with padded board splints
In which of the following situations should the EMT splint an injured limb in the position of deformity?
if resistance is encountered or the patient experiences severe pain
With regard to musculoskeletal injuries, the zone of injury is defined as the:
area of soft-tissue damage surrounding the injury
In general, musculoskeletal injuries should be splinted before moving the patient unless:
the patient is clinically unstable
The MOST significant hazard associated with splinting is:
delaying transport of a critically injured patient
A "hip" fracture is actually a fracture of the:
During your secondary assessment of a 30-year-old male who fell 25 feet, you note crepitus when palpating his pelvis. Your partner advises you that the patient's blood pressure is 80/50 mm Hg and his heart rate is 120 beats/min and weak. After completing your assessment, you should:
stabilize the pelvis with a pelvic binder and protect the spine
A supracondylar or intercondylar fracture is also known as a fracture of the:
The musculoskeletal system refers to the:
bones and voluntary muscles of the body
A 22-year-old female was ejected from her car after striking a tree head-on. As you approach her, you note obvious closed deformities to both of her femurs. She is not moving and does not appear to be conscious. You should:
stabilize her head and perform a primary assessment
A fracture is MOST accurately defined as a(n):
break in the continuity of the bone
Crepitus and false motion are:
positive indicators of a fracture
Common signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion include all of the following EXCEPT:
hot, dry skin
A 30-year-old male was rescued after being lost in the woods for approximately 18 hours. The outside temperature is 30 degrees F> He is immediately placed in the warmed ambulance, where your perform a primary assessment. He is unresponsive, pale, and apneic. You should:
assess for a carotid pulse for up to 60 seconds
The body's natural cooling mechanism, in which sweat is converted to a gas, is called:
The MOST prominent symptom of decompression sickness is:
abdominal or joint pain
A 31-year-old male was bitten on the leg by an unidentified snake. The patient is conscious and alert and in no apparent distress. Your assessment of his leg reveals two small puncture marks with minimal pain and swelling. In addition to administering oxygen and providing reassurance, further care for this patient should include:
supine positioning, splinting the leg, and transporting
Hypothermia occurs when the core body temperature falls below:
95 degrees F(35C)
You receive a call to a residence for a sick patient. Upon your arrival, you find the patient, a 53-year-old diabetic male, lying down on his front porch. His wife tells you that he had been mowing the lawn in the heat for the past 3 hours. The patient is confused and has hot, moist, skin. His pulse is weak and thready, and his blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg. You should:
load him into the ambulance and begin rapid cooling interventions
You and your partner respond to a park where several people were reportedly struck by lightning. When you arrive, you find three patients. The patient is lying supine on the ground; he is unresponsive and does not appear to be breathing. The second patient is ambulatory, appears confused, and is holding his arm against his chest. The third patient is sitting on the ground holding the sides of his head. After calling for backup, you should:
assess the unresponsive patient's pulse, begin CPR starting with chest compressions if he is pulseless, and attach the AED as soon as possible
In contrast to Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever:
can cause paralysis and cardiorespiratory collapse
You respond to a local lake where a diver complains of difficulty breathing that occurred immediately after rapidly ascending from a depth of approximately 30 feet. On assessment, you note that he has cyanosis around his lips and has pink froth coming from his nose and mouth. You should:
suction his mouth and nose, apply high-flow O2, monitor the patient's breath sounds for a pneumothorax, and contact medical control regarding transport to a recompression facility
Burns associated with lightning strikes are typically:
Which of the following MOST accurately describes hyperthermia?
the body is exposed to more heat than it can lose
The venom of a black widow spider is toxic to the:
All of the following terms refer to a body part that is cold but not frozen, EXCEPT:
Most of the serious injuries associated with scuba diving are caused by:
too rapid of an ascent
The EMT must assume that any unwitnessed water-related incident is accompanied by:
possible spinal injury
Drowning is MOST accurately defined as:
death from suffocation after submersion in water
When a warm hand is immersed in water that is 70F (21C), heat is transferred from the hand to the water through a process called:
You are transporting a 28-year-old man with a frostbitten foot. The patient's vital signs are stable and he denies any other injuries or symptoms. The weather is treacherous and your transport time to the hospital is approximately 45 minutes. During transport, you should:
protect the affected part from further injury
Which of the following is an early sign of pit viper envenomation?
local swelling and ecchymosis
During your visual inspection of a 25-year-old woman in labor, you see the baby's head crowning at the vaginal opening. What should you do?
apply gentle pressure to the baby's head as it delivers
A nuchal cord is defined as an umbilical cord that:
is wrapped around the baby's neck
From what internal female organ is the fetus expelled during delivery?
By the 20th week of pregnancy, the uterus is typically at or above the level of the mother's:
A history of pelvic inflammatory disease of tubal ligations increases a woman's risk for:
an ectopic pregnancy
You are attending to a 23-year-old female patient who is 16 weeks pregnant with her second child. The patient has apparently fallen and sustained an injury to her upper right arm. When you ask about the incident history, the patient is reluctant to explain what happened and becomes very quiet. Based on this information, you should:
continue your care in a private area, document any details regarding the scene and the incident, and reassure her as your provide care
Common interventions used to stimulate spontaneous respirations in the newborn include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A pregnant trauma patient may lose a significant amount of blood before showing signs of shock because:
pregnant patients have an overall increase in blood volume
When preparing a pregnant patient for delivery, you should position her:
on a firm surface with her hips elevated 2 to 4 inches
When determining the frequency of contractions, you should time the contractions from the:
start of one to the start of the next
A 26-year-old female who is 34 weeks pregnant is experiencing a seizure. Her husband tells you that her blood pressure has been high and that she had been complaining of a headache for the past few days. You should:
place her on her side, administer high-flow oxygen, and transport
The presence of meconium in the amniotic fluid indicates:
that the baby's airway may be obstructed
A mother who is pregnant with her first baby is typically in the first stage of labor for approximately:
You and your partner are both male and are attending to a 28-year-old female patient complaining of diffuse abdominal pain. The patient is 34 weeks pregnant with her first child. The patient refuses to allow you to examine her, and her husband informs you that their culture does not allow males to examine or care for pregnant women. You should:
respect the patient's wishes, ensures that the appropriate documentation is completed, and transport the patient
If a baby is born at 7:52, the second Apgar score should be calculated at:
Which of the following questions is of LEAST pertinence when determining whether a mother will deliver her baby within the next few minutes?
"Have you had a sonogram?"
Three days after delivering her baby, a 30-year-old woman complains of a sudden onset of difficulty breathing. Her level of consciousness is decreased and she is tachycardic. The EMT should suspect:
Your 22-year-old patient is in active labor. Upon visual inspection, you note that the infant's leg is protruding from the vagina. Appropriate management of this situation includes:
placing the mother supine with her head down and pelvis elevated
Following delivery of a full-term baby, you have properly cared for the baby and have clamped and cut the umbilical cord. During transport, you note that the mother is experiencing moderate vaginal bleeding. You should:
firmly massage the uterine fundus with circular motion
The amniotic fluid serves to:
insulate and protect the fetus
A 12-year-old female has experienced a seizure. When you arrive at the scene, the child is conscious, crying, and clinging to her mother. Her skin is hot and moist. The mother tells you that the seizure lasted approximately 5 minutes. She further tells you that her daughter has no history of seizures, but has had a recent ear infection. You should:
cool the child with tepid water and transport to the hospital
A 5-year-old child has had severe vomiting and diarrhea for 4 days. Which of the following assessment findings would be the MOST indicative of decompensated shock?
blood pressure of 70/40 mm Hg
A viral infection that may cause obstruction of the upper airway in a child is called:
An infant with severe dehydration would be expected to present with:
absent urine output
Burns in children are commonly caused by all of the following, EXCEPT:
entrapment in a structural fire
Common causes of seizures in children include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Infection should be considered a possible cause of an airway obstruction in an infant or child, especially if he or she presents with:
drooling or congestion
Pale skin in a child indicates that the:
blood vessels near the skin are constricted
Signs and symptoms of meningitis in the infant or child include all of the following, EXCEPT:
The first month of life after birth is referred to as the:
The purpose of the pediatric assessment triangle (PAT) is to:
allow you to rapidly and visually form a general impression of the child
Unless he or she is critically ill or injured, you should generally begin your assessment of a toddler:
at the feet
When a child is struck by a car, the area of greatest injury depends MOSTLY on the:
age of the child and the size of the car that struck him or her
When assessing an 8-year-old child, you should:
talk to the child, not just the caregiver
When caring or a female child who has possibly been sexually abused, you should:
have a female EMT remain with her if possible
When questioning the parent of a child who ingested a poisonous substance, which of the following questions would be of LEAST pertinence initially?
why did your child ingest the poison
Which of the following findings is LEAST suggestive of child abuse?
Consistency in the method of injury reported by the caregiver
Which of the following statements regarding sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is correct?
death as a result of SIDS can occur at any time of the day or night
While triaging patients at the scene of a motor-vehicle crash, you encounter a 5-year-old child who is unresponsive and apneic. After positioning his airway, you should:
palpate for a carotid pulse
You are dispatched to a residence for a child with respiratory distress. The patient, and 18-moth-old female, is tachypneic, has sternal retractions, and is clinging to her mother. Her skin is pink and dry, and her heart rate is 120 beats/min. The MOST appropriate treatment for this child includes:
administering blow-by oxygen and transporting the child with her mother
A 77-year-old female presents with an acute onset of altered mental status. Her son is present and advises that she has a history of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, type 2 diabetes, and glaucoma. He further advises that she takes numerous medications and that she is normally alert. When you assess this patient, it is important to note that:
the patient is experiencing delirious behavior, which suggests a new health problem
A specific legal document that directs relatives and caregivers regarding the medical treatment that may be given to patients who cannot speak for themselves is called a(n):
An 84-year-old male fell a week ago and has been bedridden since then. Today, he presents with an altered mental status. His skin is pale and cold and his respirations are rapid and shallow. The EMT should suspect:
a systemic infection
An abdominal aortic aneurysm:
is often the result of hypertension and atherosclerosis
Because of the complexity of the older patient and the vagueness of his or her complaint, you should:
attempt to differentiate between chronic and acute problems
Blood levels of medications may rise in the elderly, sometimes to toxic level. This is MOST likely due to:
Clouding of the lenses of the eye is called:
Common causes of depression in the elderly include all of the following, EXCEPT:
an acute onset of dementia
During the natural process of aging, the number of functional cilia in the respiratory system decreases, resulting in:
a decreased ability to cough
In contrast to younger patients, older patients are more prone to a decrease in blood pressure (BP) upon standing because:
the body is less able to adapt the BP to rapid postural changes
Poor maintenance of home, poor personal care, and dietary neglect are all possible indicators of____ elder abuse.
Sedentary behavior while healing from a hip fracture would MOST likely predispose the older patient to:
Talking about an elderly patient in front of him or her to other members of the family:
may cause the patient to think that he or she has no say in making decisions
The EMT should suspect left-sided heart failure in the geriatric patient who presents with:
tachypnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
The leading cause of death in the geriatric patient is:
The stooped posture of some older people. which gives them a humpback appearance, is called:
To minimize distractions and confusion when assessing an older patient, you should:
have only one EMT speak to the patient at a time
When immobilizing a patient with a kyphotic spine to a long backboard, the EMT would MOST likely have to:
place blankets behind the patient's head
Which of the following observations or statements represents the "E" in the GEMS diamond?
the patient's residence is cold due to a malfunctioning heater
You are assessing a 70-year old female who complains of intense thirst, frequent urination, and dizziness. She has a history of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout. Her blood glucose reads "high". She is conscious, but confused. Her blood pressure is 92/52 mm Hg, her pulse rate is 130 beats/min and weak, and her respirations are 22 breaths/min and shallow. This patient's clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:
hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome
A 13-year-old child is on a home ventilator. The parents called because the mechanical ventilator is malfunctioning and the child has increasing respiratory distress. You should:
disconnect the ventilator and apply a tracheostomy collar
A 70-year-old male complains of shortness of breath. During your assessment, you note that he has bilateral hearing aids. When you ask him questions related to his chief complaint, he does not answer you. You can hear a whistling sound coming from his hearing aids. You should:
try repositioning the hearing aid or remove it and turn down the volume
A person is said to be obese when he or she is ____ over his or her ideal weight.
30% or more
A surgical procedure that creates an opening between the intestine and the surface of the body that allows for elimination of waste products is called a(n):
According to the "E" in the DOPE mnemonic, which of the following actions should you perform to troubleshoot inadequate ventilation in a patient with a tracheostomy tube?
check the mechanical ventilator for malfunction
According to the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor (EMTALA):
all healthcare facilities must provide a medical assessment and required treatment, regardless of the patient's ability to pay
Because a traceostomy tube bypasses the nose and mouth:
secretions can build up in and around the tube
Cerebral palsy is characterized by poorly controlled ______ movement
Common complications associated with central venous catheters include all of the following, EXCEPT:
rupture of a central vein
Down syndrome is a genetic defect that occurs as the result of:
a triplication of chromosome 21
Spina bifida is defined as:
a birth defect caused by incomplete closure of the spinal column
The purpose of a ventricular peritoneum shunt is to:
prevent excess cerebrospinal fluid from accumulating in the brain
Under what circumstances is a left ventricular assist device used?
as a bridge to heart transplantation while a donor heart is being located
When caring for a patient who is visually impaired, it is important to:
tell him or her what is happening, identify noises, and describe the situation and surroundings
Which of the following conditions would MOST likely encountered in a patient with cerebral palsy?
Which of the following statements regarding autism is correct?
most cases of autism are diagnosed by 3 years of age
Which of the following statements regarding interaction with caregiver of a child or adult with special healthcare needs is correct?
communication with patient's caregiver or family members is important because they are the most familiar with the patient's condition
Which of the following statements regarding patients with intellectual disabilities is correct?
patients with intellectual disabilities are susceptible to the same disease processes as other patients
Which of the following would be the MOST practical method of communicating with a hearing-impaired patient until his or her hearing aids can be located?
using a piece of paper and writing utensil to ask questions
You are assessing a 440-lb man who complains of shortness of breath and lower back pain. The patient is conscious and alert, his blood pressure is 148/98 mm Hg, and his heart rate is 120 beats/min. Your MOST immediate action should be to:
avoid placing him a supine position if possible and administer oxygen
The MOST common and usually the most serious ambulance crashes occur at:
The use of the lights and siren on an ambulance:
signifies a request for other drivers to yield the right of way
Common safety equipment carried on the ambulance includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
hazardous materials gear
In which of the following situations would the EMTs MOST likely utilize a police escort?
the EMTs are unfamiliar with the location, but the police officer knows the area
For every emergency request, the dispatcher should routinely gather and record all of the following information, EXCEPT the:
patient's medical history
Immediately upon arriving at the scene of an emergency call involving a traumatic injury, you should notify the dispatcher of your arrival and then:
observe the scene for safety hazards
Equipment and supplies that are carried on an ambulance should be stored:
according to the urgency and frequency of their use
A medical transport helicopter is incoming and you are responsible for setting up the landing zone (LZ). You should:
use weighted cones to mark all four corners of the LZ
When approaching a helicopter, whether the rotor blades are moving or not, you should:
never duck under the body or the tail boom because the pilot cannot see you in these ares
A type ____ ambulance features a conventional, truck, cab-chassis with a modular ambulance body that can be transferred to a newer chassis as needed.
Which of the following is an example of regional equipment or supplies?`
Hydroplaning of the ambulance on wet roads would MOST likely occur at speeds of greater than _____ mph.
The process of removing dirt, dust, blood, or other visible contaminants from a surface or equipment is called:
When arriving at the scene of an overturned tractor-trailer rig, you note that a green cloud is being emitted from the crashed vehicle. The driver is still in the truck; he is conscious but bleeding profusely from the head. After notifying the hazardous materials team, you should:
position the ambulance upwind
While en route to a call for a patient in cardiac arrest, you approach a stopped school bus with its red warning lights flashing. You should:
stop and wait until the warning lights stop flashing
You have just delivered a major trauma patient to the hospital. Shortly after departing the hospital, dispatch advises you of another call. The back of the ambulance is contaminated with bloody dressings and is in disarray, and you are in need of airway equipment and numerous other supplies. You should:
advise the dispatcher that you are out of service and to send another unit
General guidelines for safe ambulance driving include all of the following, EXCEPT:
regularly using the siren as much as possible
During the transport phase of an ambulance call, it is MOST important to:
converse with the patient and provide reassurance
The LEAST practical place to store a portable oxygen cylinder is:
in the driver's compartment
Maintaining a cushion of safety when operating an ambulance means:
keeping a safe distance between your ambulance and the vehicles in front of you and remaining aware of vehicles potentially hiding in your mirrors' blind spots
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