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biology 141 test 1
Terms in this set (68)
Basic unit of life
novel properties arising from the way in which components interact. emergent properties often can not be deduced solely from knowledge of the individual components
Decision making process in which ideas are processed from the specific to the general.
applies general principles to predict specific results
A scientific explanation for a set of observations that can be tested in ways that support or reject it.
A procedure that tests if a hypothesis is true or false.
substance that is knowt to react positively- giving you a standard on which to base your results
Show the expected results if a given substance is absent
A factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis.
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data
same origin but differ in structure and function
similar function and structure but different origin
single cell organisms
composed of a complex organized cell or multiple complex cells
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
7 characteristics /properties of life
2) organized and complex
3) process energy
5) adapt and evolve
6) respond to the enviroment
7) maintain homeostasis
levels or organization
atoms---> biomolecules---> organelles---> cells---> tissue--->organ---> organ system---> organism---> population---> species---> ecosystem---> biosphere
Atoms with a charge
A positively charged ion
A negatively charged ion
A bond that forms between negative and positive ions.
Atom's ability to attract and hold electrons.
A bond from sharing valence electrons
polar covalent bonds
Bonds in which electrons are not shared equally between atoms of different elements in a compound.
Very weak bond created by the attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen atom to a slightly negative portion of another moleculeB
A chemical compound that releases H+ to a solution.
a substance that releases OH (hydroxyl ion) in a solution
2) transmembrane transport
3) cell I.D.
4) signal receptors
5) cell to cell adhesion
A compound consisting of repeated linked monomers.
A molecule of any compound that can react with other molecules of the same or different compound to form a polymer. Each biological macromolecule has characteristic monomers.
4 levels of protein structure
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary
function of nucleic acids
1) info storage - DNA
2) info retrieval - RNA
3) energy - ATP
a functional group that defines a particular amino acid and gives it special properties.
level of organization that is more complex than and atom but less complex than an organelle
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
A group of similar cells that perform the same function.
A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
biological community with its physical habitat
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Number of protons in an atom
Any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
the particles of the nucleus that have no charge
A positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
A tiny , negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom.
one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
A reaction involving the gain of electrons by an element
Loss of an electron
A region of space around the nucleus where an electron is likely to be found.
Electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons
Attraction between molecules of the same substance
An attraction between molecules of different substances
measures hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
A chemical process that combines several monomers to form a polymer.
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
A group of organic compounds composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen including a proportionately smaller amount of oxygen; are insoluble in water, serve as a source of stored energy, and are a component of cell membranes.
Compounds made up of amino acids
-Class of organic compounds that includes monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
A chemical reaction in which two molecules are bonded together with the removal of a water molecule.
A chemical reaction that breaks apart a larger molecule by adding a molecule of water
Three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
alpha helix and beta pleated sheets
secondary structures in a protein
a compound whose molecules are composed of two identical monomers
a polymer (or a molecule of a polymer) consisting of three identical monomers
Recommended textbook explanations
Anatomy and Physiology
Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Peter V Minorsky, Steven A. Wasserman
Blackboard -- Access Card -- for Campbell Biology
Campbell, Jackson, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
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