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VEN 140 Final
Terms in this set (105)
Cognac 1st distillation
wine-->condenser-->Teres, Brouillis, Queues
Cognac 2nd distillation
brouillis-->condenser-->Tetes Cognac (Coeur), Tailles, Queue de secondes
Scotch Whisky 1st distillation (Wash still)
Beer--> Condenser--> Foreshots, Low wines, Feints
Scotch Whisky 2nd distillation (Low wines still)
Low wines-->Condenser-->Foresots, Whisky, Feints
Irish whisky has how many distillations?
1st distillation (wash still)
2nd distillation (low wines still)
3rd distillation (spirits still)
Operating line equation for concentrating section
Eq'n of straight line intersecting y=x of the equilibirum curve at a value of x= xD
indicates the amount of product to be recycled back to the top
Rectifying (concentrating) operating line=
Upper portion of the operating that extends from the points xD to xF
Operating line for the stripping section
Lower portion of the operating line that extends from xB to xF
The number of moles of saturated liquid formed on the feed tray by introducing one more mole of feed.
McCabe Thiele is.
considered to be the simplest and most instructive method for the analysis of Binary distillation
McCabe Thiele uses
fact that composition of each theoretical tray (equilibrium stage) is completely determined by the mole fraction of 1 or 2 components and assumes molar overflow is constant
The steps along the operating line give...
The equilibrium composition of liquid on each ideal tray (xn+1)
The steps along the curve (eq. curve) give..
the composition of the VAPOR LEAVING each tray (yn) and the EQUILIBRIUM LIQUID on that tray (xn)
q of saturated liquid=
1 (straight up and means its infinite)
ex: Liquid at Bubbling point
q of saturated vapor=
q of partially vaporized=
0 to 1
(anywhere in 1st quadrant btwn 0 and 1)
q of cold (temp. below BOILING point)=
(Between q=1 and x=y line; beyond vertical line aka q=1)
Proof of whisky and brandy
losing both ethanol and water
Rancio formation is... (in cognac and scotch)
nutty, floral and dried fruit characteristics....
Regions of Cognac
Cognac regulated by
BNIC: Bureau National Interprofessional du Cognac
Features of Cognac:
1) Vineyards, Fermentation, and 1st distillation in vineyard estates
2) 2nd distillation often at central site
Grapes of Cognac:
1) Ugni blanc (Trebbiano)
2) Pre-Phylloxera Folle Blanche and Colombard
3) Roostock RSB
4) No sugar addition, no screw presses
Winemaking of Cognac:
1) Early harvest: 16-18 Brix
2) Low pH (3.0-3.2)
3) No SO2 add'n
4) Warm Ferm.
5) Spontaneous Ferm.
6) Little to no MLF
7) Distilled on Yeast between January & March
Barrel Aging of Cognac:
-Fresh Cognac into 2nd use barrels
-Partially filled, loose bunged for 1st yr (new oak at first transfer, Minimum age of 2 years)
Types of Cognac:
-VS: very special (4-5 years)
-VSOP: very superior old pale (10 years)
-Special products: 20 years aging
-50+ years: XO, Extra, Louis 13th, Remy, Hennessey
BNIA: Bureau National Interprofessional du Armagnac
1) Folle Blanche
3) Baco Blanco
4) Ugni Blanc
5) Baco Noir
Same as Cognac
Distillation between November and Mid. Feb.
Armagnac distillation method:
Stills for Armagnac:
1) Pot rectifier
2) Wine preheater
4) Wine as reflux
distilled apple cider from Normandy
Bartlett pear fruit brandy is also known as
Winemaking of Fruit Brandy
1) High pH (>4.0)
2) Malate based
3) High pectin (Methanol)
4) Cyanides in stone fruits
5) Presence of Pulp during distillation
6) Low sugar content (8-10 brix)
7) No SO2
8) Cool Fermentation
Distillation methods of Fruit brandy:
-solid phase fermentation
Arrastre de Vapor (Portugese Basaceira)
Steam stripping of fermented grape skins
Name a few regional whiskies
Isle of Skye
Isle of Jura
Fermentation of whiskies:
1) 6-7% v/v Beer extract
2) S. cerevisiae inoculation
3) Temperature (22-24^o C)
4) 2-3 day Fermentation
5) wooden and stainless fermentation
6) Distilled within days of completion
Grain & Blended Whisky (>80% of Scotch Whisky)
Single Malt Whisky
Malted Barley= single distillery (Multidistillery blends= vatted or pure malt)
Barrel Aging of Whisky
Minimum of 2 years in "oak" barrels (generally used Bourbon U.S. oak)
Rye & American Oak
Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Tennessee
Bardstown, Owenshore, Louisville, Frankfort, Lawrenceburg
Corn, rye, wheat, malted barley (New charred Oak)
Charcoal filtered, "Sour Mash"
(Dickel, Jack Daniel)
8+ years old before ripe enough
Agave is harvested by
Removing pina (cutting fronds off)
How to cook agave:
1) Cut into halves or quarters
2) Remove bitter sprout
3) 24 hours steam temperature
4) 24 hours cooling
Tasteless fructose polymer in pina only
Fermentation Time of Tequila
40 to 60 hours
Distillation method of Tequila
Double pot but mostly column
Aging of tequila (Primarily in used Bourbon barrels):
4) Extra Anejo
2) 3-6 months
3) 12 months
4) 3 years
To estimate the activity coefficients in binary mixtures, whose equation would you use?
In the US, a "whisky" must be made from
Fermented grains and distilled at less than 190 proof
A Bourbon Whisky must satisfy what requirements:
mash containing at least 51% corn distilled at or less than 160 proof
A straight Rye Whisky must satisfy what requirements
mash contains at least 51% rye distilled at or less than 160 proof
What is the vapor composition compared to the liquid composition at the azetropic condition
In the US, a Pear Brandy must satisfy what requirements
Made from fermented pears distilled at less than 190 proof
Bourbon Whiskey must be aged
At or less than 125 proof in charred new oak containers
Name 2 neutral spirits and their Distilling, Aging, and Bottling proof
2) Grain Spirits
190, None, 80
Name 6 types of Whiskey and their Distilling, Aging, and Bottling proof:
3) Rye Malt
160, 125, 80
What is the raw material used in a general whiskey and its distilling, aging and bottling proof?
Mash of grain
Less than 190, 125, and 80
What are "Distinctive Product"?
Those manufactured under their country's laws such as:
Canadian, Irish, and Scotch whiskey, cognac, tequila, pisco, chachaca
Which aging wood is used for vodka and grain spirits?
None and Oak
Which aging wood is used for all whiskeys with the exception of Corn whiskey?
Charred new oak containers
What aging wood is used for corn whiskey and why?
Because it is optional to wood age.
What is a blended whiskey? Blended rye? Sour mash?
All types of whiskey that:
1) are at least 20% straight whiskey
2) are at least 51% straight rye
3) usually 25% recycled stillage
How long is a straight whiskey aged in charred new oak containers?
At least 2 years
q of superheated vapor feed=
(below q=0 which is saturated vapor feed and between x=y line)
-Feed composition or Input feed or Input [Ethanol]
-Point where rectifying line meets stripping line
and it is...
it is the equation of the rectifying operating line
and it is...
and it is the equation of xB intersecting line aka the stripping operating line
Where are these located?
Located where the equilibrium curve comes in contact with n
Where are these located?
Located where the n+1 meets the operating line aka the Mass Balancing line
-Bottom or Bottom product [Ethanol]
-Lowest point of stripping operating line (where this operating line begins)
-Top product or Distillate or Overhead
Resulting purified liquid from condensing vapor during distillation
product flow rate in kmol/h
Input flow rate in kmol/h
Internal reflux ratio
(L/V) aka the slope of the line formed by the rectifying operating line through point y=xD
What is the slope when the q-line intersects with y=xF?
L' and V' are
molar flow rates of liquid overflow and vapor flow for the stripping operating line
Sidedraw product [Ethanol]
How would you find the number of IDEAL steps?
Measuring # of right angle steps between the equilibrium curve and the proper operating line that is needed to go from xD to xB
# right angle steps btwn equilibrium curve and operation line from xD to xB
What do the ideal steps technically measure?
The required span of separation of the volatile component into Distillate and Bottoms
Where is the Feed plate (Sidedraw stream)
Point where the operating lines intersect.
(Doesn't touch a right angle)
Where is the sidedraw product if there is one?
Where the rectifying line breaks again
When would you use a McCabe Thiele with Liquid Sidedraw stream?
1) Typical Whiskey
5) or Product from column still
If the McCabe Thiele has no operating line, then
It has Total Reflux so RR=100
If the McCabe Thiele has everything but no slopes are included, then
It has Minimum Reflux so RR=3.2
What are the stages in a Two Stage Batch Distillation?
1) First stage= 28% Brouillis
2) Second stage= 60% Brandy
What are the chronological stages of a Multistage Continous Distillation?
1) Head cut
3) Fusel oil cut
What is stillage?
The residue from manufacturing alcohol from grain
What are the components of a Single Column distillation?
1) Two column sections (Rectifying and stripping)
2) Product as overhead distillate (no head separation)
3) Condenser level below top of the column
The purpose of the condenser is to:
Prevent return of any condenser product as relux by gravity
When would stills use Single Column Distillation?
When they are 25-35 years of age
What kind of still does Bourbon use?
Copper column still
What kind of still does Rum use?
Wooden Coffey still
What is the Vapor flow rate in column distillation?
Constant by assuming equal molar heats of vaporization.
Regarding trays, yn+1 is the Composition of Vapor and Liquid Streams interaction on tray (n) and measures
The relationship btwn VAPOR entering tray (n) and Liquid leaving tray (n)
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